viernes, 11 de diciembre de 2015

CDC MMWR News Synopsis for December 10, 2015

MMWR- Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
MMWR News Synopsis for December 10, 2015

Driving Under the Influence of Alcohol, Marijuana, and Alcohol and Marijuana Combined Among Persons Aged 16–25 Years — United States, 2002–2014

Despite the encouraging decline in driving under the influence of alcohol and alcohol and marijuana combined among youth and young adults aged 16−25, everyone should remember that drunk and drugged driving is a risky behavior that can result in fatal motor vehicle accidents. Motor vehicle accidents are the leading cause of death among American youth and young adults aged 16−25 years. This SAMHSA study reveals that from 2002–2014 fewer persons aged 16−25 years drove under the influence of alcohol alone and alcohol and marijuana combined. Driving under the influence of alcohol alone increased with age, changing from 1.5% among persons aged 16 years to 18.1% among persons aged 21 years. Since driving under the influence of any psychoactive substance is a risky behavior, additional prevention efforts are needed to further reduce driving under the influence of alcohol and marijuana. This important public health problem requires the attention of parents, public health officials, law enforcement, and federal and state officials.

College Sports–Related Injuries — United States, 2009–10 through 2013–14 Academic Years

Despite higher injury rates in competition, most injuries overall and within most sports occur during practices. Attending to injury prevention in the more controlled environment of practices, along with efforts during competition, may be helpful in reducing injury incidence. During five academic years, it is estimated that there were more than 176.7 million athlete exposures (AE) to injury and 1,053,370 injuries among student-athletes across all NCAA member institutions. Among all sports, football accounted for the most injuries and the highest competition injury rate. Men’s wrestling had the highest overall injury rate and practice injury rate. Among women’s sports, gymnastics had the highest overall injury rate and practice injury rate. More injuries occurred in practices than in competitions for all sports but men’s ice hockey and baseball. Injury prevention strategies that target the more controlled environment of practices alongside those for competitions may provide additional opportunities for reduction in injury incidence.
Syringe Service Programs for Persons Who Inject Drugs in Urban, Suburban, and Rural Areas — United States, 2013

Syringe service programs (SSPs) providing syringe exchange and/or other health services are less available to persons who inject drugs (PWID) in suburban and rural areas than in cities. State and local governments should extend SSPs to PWID in rural and suburban areas. Many suburban and rural areas in the US are have been experiencing dramatic increases in injection drug use, accompanied by outbreaks of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections and opiate overdose deaths. SSPs, including syringe exchange, have proven highly effective in reducing HIV and HCV infection in areas where they have been properly implemented. Many SSPs also distribute naloxone to reverse opiate overdoses. We conducted a national survey of syringe service programs (SSPs) in the US and compared SSPs operating in urban, suburban and rural areas. There were substantially fewer SSPs in rural and suburban than in urban areas. Syringe exchange, naloxone distribution and other needed health services should be expanded to persons who inject drugs in suburban and rural areas.
Update: Influenza Activity — United States, October 4–November 28, 2015

While the timing of influenza activity can vary, little influenza activity has occurred to date this season, thus vaccination at this time should still offer substantial public health benefit. CDC recommends yearly influenza vaccination for all persons 6 months of age and older without contraindications, as vaccination remains the most effective method to prevent influenza and its complications. Prescription antiviral medications continue to be an important adjunct to vaccination for reducing the health impact of influenza. Treatment is recommended for patients with confirmed or suspected influenza who are severely ill, who require hospitalization, or who are at risk for serious influenza-related complications. Antiviral drugs work best when started within two days of getting sick. During October 4 – November 28, 2015, influenza activity in the United States increased slightly, although activity remained low. Influenza A (H1N1)pdm09, influenza A(H3N2), and influenza B viruses have been detected in the United States with influenza A (H3N2) predominating. Antigenic and/or genetic characterization of influenza-positive respiratory specimens submitted to CDC indicate that the majority of the influenza virus isolates recently examined in the U.S. are characterized as being similar to the 2014-2015 Northern Hemisphere reference vaccine viruses. Health care providers should offer vaccine to all unvaccinated persons aged ≥6 months now and throughout the influenza season as long as influenza viruses are circulating.

Notes from the Field:
  • Concurrent Outbreaks of St. Louis Encephalitis Virus and West Nile Virus Disease ― Arizona, 2015

  • Percentage of Persons Who Delayed or Did Not Receive Medical Care During the Preceding Year Because of Cost, by Health Status — National Health Interview Survey, United States, 2014

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