MMWR- Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
MMWR News Synopsis for February 18, 2016
Prevalence of Healthy Sleep Duration among Adults — United States, 2014
Adequate sleep is important for optimal health. The large number of adults who do not get enough sleep presents opportunities for sleep health education, for reducing racial/ethnic and economic disparities, for changes in work shift policies, and for routine medical assessment of patients’ sleep concerns in health care systems. Adults who do not get enough sleep on a regular basis are more likely than those who do to suffer from chronic conditions such as obesity, high blood pressure, and diabetes, as well as poor mental health and injuries. Adults need to regularly sleep seven or more hours per day for optimal health. Approximately two thirds of American adults reported usually sleeping seven or more hours a day. A lower proportion of adults reported this healthy sleep duration in states clustered in the southeastern United States and the Appalachians, which are regions with the highest burdens of obesity and other chronic conditions. A lower percentage of healthy sleep duration was also reported by non-Hispanic black, American Indian/Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, and multiracial populations compared with other racial/ethnic groups.
Cluster of HIV Infections Attributed to Unsafe Injection Practices — Cambodia, December 1, 2014–February 28, 2015
A cluster of new HIV infections in Cambodia last year highlights the risk of HIV transmission through unsafe medical injections. HIV outbreaks that originated within hospital or other informal medical settings have demonstrated the potential for the overuse of medical injections to cause outbreaks in low-risk populations. Use of medical injections has been shown to be high in Cambodia relative to neighboring countries, although the true amount of injection equipment reuse is unknown. This report documents the largest cluster of new HIV infections ever attributed to unsafe injections among a general population. In this case, the cluster occurred in a rural area of Cambodia and was detected following increased demand for HIV testing by residents who perceived themselves to be at risk following exposure to an unlicensed provider of injections and intravenous infusions. The report underscores the need to conduct more research to better understand public demand for medical injections; support efforts that reduce the demand for unnecessary medical injections; and improve health care workers’ injection practices.
Update: Influenza Activity — United States, October 4, 2015–February 6, 2016
Influenza activity is increasing throughout the United States with co-circulation of influenza A (H3N2), influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 and influenza B viruses. From mid-December until early February influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 has predominated. Influenza activity in the United States has been increasing since late December 2015 and continues to increase through February 6, 2016. Influenza A (H3N2), influenza A (H1N1)pdm09, and influenza B viruses have co-circulated this season, with influenza A (H3N2) viruses predominating during October until early December, and influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 viruses predominating from mid-December until early February. Although early vaccine effectiveness estimates are not yet available for the 2015-16 Northern Hemisphere vaccine, most of the viruses characterized by the CDC to date are antigenically similar to components in the 2015-16 Northern Hemisphere influenza vaccines. Vaccination is the best way to prevent influenza infection and health care providers should continue to encourage vaccination for unvaccinated persons aged ≥6 months throughout the influenza season.
Notes from the Field:
- Administration Errors Involving a Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine — United States, March 1, 2010–September 22, 2015
- Outbreak of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome in a Large Tertiary Care Hospital — Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 2015
- Percentage of Adults Who Were Prescribed Medication by a Doctor or Other Health Care Professional During the Past 12 Months, by Poverty Status — National Health Interview Survey, United States, 2014