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Published Date: 2017-04-18 22:14:15
Subject: PRO/AH/EDR> Anthrax, human, livestock, 2016 - Argentina
Archive Number: 20170418.4978771
A ProMED-mail post
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases

Date: Tue 18 Apr 2017
From: Ramón Noseda <rnoseda@laboratorioazul.com.ar> [edited]

Summary Status of rural anthrax in Argentina, 2016
The annual assessment of rural anthrax in Argentina is a communicational strategy throughout the last 14 years of consecutive reports that validate this epidemiological information. This report assesses different scenarios where people and cattle coexist in a livestock country with more than 53 million units. The annual assessment is performed over:

1- Assessment area of rural anthrax in the Province of Buenos Aires made up of 30 districts. Random outbreaks of anthrax arose on 3 districts: General Villegas, Olavarría and González Chavez. The annual percent distribution of anthrax in 2016 was of 4 percent, 3 percent points less than 2015, and the average 1977-2016 remains on 11percent with 463 _Bacillus anthracis_ isolations over a total of 4210 samples assessed. The seasonal percent distribution also showed a decrease of 6 percent points (12 percent) during the summer of 2016 and identical performance in autumn (5 percent) with 5 points less. There were no isolations during winter and spring.

2- Alert zone and response in the district of Azul. Created by Decree Nº 661-2004 issued by the City Hall of Azul. Azul is a livestock district with 616 652 head of cattle and a historical number of 67 outbreaks of anthrax that have caused 20 human alerts and 21 vet alerts since 2004. Over the last 4 years (2013-2016), there haven't been anthrax outbreaks on any bovine or human case. A total of 1 717 332 units of cattle have been vaccinated against foot-and-mouth disease and anthrax simultaneously in the last 12 years. As many as 219 324 units were vaccinated in this term, this is 51 percent of "susceptible population", 21 percent points less than 2015.

3- Isolations in other Vet Diagnosis Labs. During 2016, there was a decrease of 3 percent points compared to 2015.

4- Districts of the province of Buenos Aires involved in anthrax outbreaks. A total of 4 random bovine anthrax outbreaks arose in the districts of: General Villegas (1), Rauch (1), Olavarría (1), and Gonzales Chaves (1).

5- Production of antianthrax vaccine for veterinary use. A total of 23 839 470 doses for bovine use were produced. There was a decrease of 3 821 315 doses compared to 2015.

6- Compulsory bovine vaccination: 3 areas of antianthrax vaccination were assessed:
a)- Province of Buenos Aires. According to official information, 10 404 919 head of cattle were vaccinated of susceptible population (75 percent). A total of 31 604 herds (49 percent) belonged to Stockbreeder Firms.
b)- Province of Santa Fe: 5 008 684 head of cattle were vaccinated, this is 96 percent of its susceptible population and their estancias, 26 414 (96 percent).
c)- Alert Zone and Response in the district of Azul, Province of Buenos Aires: 219 324 head of cattle were vaccinated (51 percent) of its "susceptible population"

7 - Cases of human anthrax at a national level - 2 cases of skin carbuncle were informed in the Province of Santa Fe.

8- Other facts related to rural anthrax: several activities related to rural carbuncle in Argentina are described. There is more commitment of public and private organizations in the creation of zoonosis inter institutional boards in the province of Buenos Aires.

Conclusions: Every monitoring performed on the places of systematized assessment: 1-2-3-4, showed a tendency to decrease the outbreaks of rural carbuncle. In order to move ahead towards the control of rural carbuncle in Argentina, cattle breeders and sanitarian officers must agree the following:
a) Compulsory vaccination of all cattle.
b) An efficient intervention over every focal point.
c) Proper disposal of carcasses.
These are the adequate measures to control them; as a means of prevention and protection of legally protected interests: Human and Cattle Health as a source of production in this livestock country.

Ramón Noseda
Co Director Laboratorio Azul
54 02281 431770/71 - 15652891
Azul, Buenos Aires

[We greatly appreciate Ramon's prompt submission of the Argentina annual report of anthrax, "carbunclo rural". The full report has yet to be posted on the Laboratorios Azul site, but I expect it shortly. It will be found on: http://www.laboratorioazul.com.ar/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=78&Itemid=374. - Mod.MHJ

A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at: http://healthmap.org/promed/p/4.]

See Also

Anthrax, human, livestock, 2015 - Argentina 20160425.4182775
Anthrax, human, livestock, 2014 - Argentina 20150505.3343594
Anthrax, human, livestock, 2013 - Argentina 20140318.2340739
Anthrax - Argentina (09): 2012-2013, human surveillance 20130815.1881410
Anthrax, human, livestock, 2011 - Argentina (02) 20120323.1078899
Anthrax, human, livestock, 2011 - Argentina 20120321.1077056

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