martes, 8 de mayo de 2018

WebM&M Cases & Commentaries | AHRQ Patient Safety Network

WebM&M Cases & Commentaries | AHRQ Patient Safety Network

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PSNet 2015

WebM&M Cases & Commentaries

Medication Reconciliation With a Twist (or Dare We Say, a Patch?)

Janice L. Kwan, MD; May 2014
An elderly woman with a history of dementia underwent surgical resection of new colon cancer, which relieved a bowel obstruction. She developed acute delirium postoperatively, and the team discovered they had neglected to capture her cholinesterase inhibitor patch (a medication for dementia) in the official medication reconciliation list.

Raise the Bar

    James Stotts, RN, MS, CNS, and Audrey Lyndon, PhD, RNC; May 2014
    In the preoperative area, a man scheduled for excision of a groin lipoma received regional anesthesia (right iliac block) and was taken to the operating room. There, without alerting anyone, the patient attempted to rise to use the restroom, but—because his leg was numb—fell and hit his head. He reported acute neck pain and was transferred to the local emergency department.

    Discontinued Medications: Are They Really Discontinued?

      Celina Garza Mankey, MD, and Prathibha Varkey, MD, MPH, MBA; May 2014
      An elderly man on warfarin and aspirin for chronic atrial fibrillation and previous cerebrovascular accident presented to the emergency department with a severe headache. Found to have bilateral subdural hematomas and a supratherapeutic INR (4.9), he was admitted to the ICU. Even though the patient was discharged with his warfarin discontinued permanently, the outpatient pharmacy kept it on the active medication list and refilled his mail order prescription automatically, leading again to an elevated INR.

      A "Reflexive" Diagnosis in Primary Care

      John Betjemann, MD, and S. Andrew Josephson, MD; April 2014
      Despite new back pain and worsening symptoms of tingling, pain, and weakness bilaterally, in both hands and feet, a man recently diagnosed with peripheral neuropathy was not sent for further testing after repeated visits to a primary care clinic. By the time neurologists saw him, they diagnosed critical cervical cord compression, which placed the patient at risk for permanent paralysis.

      Clostridium Difficile Relapse Secondary to Medication Access Issue

        Paul C. Walker, PharmD, and Jerod Nagel, PharmD; April 2014
        Following a hospitalization for Clostridium Difficile–associated diarrhea, a woman with HIV/AIDS and B-cell lymphoma was discharged with a prescription for a 14-day course of oral vancomycin solution. At her regular retail pharmacy, she was unable to obtain the medicine, and while awaiting coverage approval, she received no treatment. Her symptoms soon returned, prompting an emergency department visit where she was diagnosed with toxic megacolon.

        CYP450 Drugs: Expect the Unexpected

          Charles John Gonzalez, MD; April 2014
          Scheduled for a hip replacement, a man with AIDS presented with sciatica. The spine surgeon administered a corticosteroid injection to control his symptoms. Soon after the patient experienced sweats, abdominal pain, weight gain, elevated blood pressure, insomnia, and anxiety. He was diagnosed with Cushing syndrome due to an adverse interaction between the HIV medication and the corticosteroid.

          Tough Call: Addressing Errors From Previous Providers

          • SPOTLIGHT CASE
          William Martinez, MD, MS, and Gerald B. Hickson, MD; March 2014
          Hospitalized 3 times within 2 months presumably for sepsis, a woman with diabetes on metformin presented to the emergency department with the same set of symptoms as her previous admissions. After reviewing her records, the admitting team determined that the patient's presentation for this and earlier admissions was more consistent with acute lactic acidosis secondary to metformin than sepsis.

          After-Visit Confusion

            William Ventres, MD, MA; March 2014
            A teenager presented to an urgent care clinic with new bumps and white spots near her tongue. Although she was diagnosed with herpetic gingivostomatitis, the after-visit summary incorrectly populated the diagnosis of "thrush" from the triage information, which was not updated with the correct diagnosis. The mistake on the printout caused confusion for the patient's mother and necessitated several follow-up communications to clear up.

            Late Anemia Following Rh Disease in a Newborn

              Thomas B. Newman, MD, MPH, and M. Jeffrey Maisels, MB, BCh, DSc; March 2014
              Following delivery and successful phototherapy for hyperbilirubinemia, an infant developed anemia over the next few weeks. Found to have Rh hemolytic disease, the infant was admitted to the hospital for blood transfusion and close monitoring.

              Multifactorial Medication Mishap

              • SPOTLIGHT CASE
              Annie Yang, PharmD, BCPS; February 2014
              Despite multiple checks by physician, pharmacist, and nurse during the medication ordering, dispensing, and administration processes, a patient received a 10-fold overdose of an opioid medication and a code blue was called.

              Nonsustained Ventricular Tachycardia After Acute Coronary Syndromes: Recognizing High-Risk Patients

                Jonathan P. Piccini, MD, MHS; L. Kristin Newby, MD, MHS; and Robert M. Califf, MD; February 2014
                A woman with coronary artery disease, diabetes, and hypertension was admitted for a myocardial infarction. Following percutaneous coronary intervention, the patient had several runs of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT) and later experienced a cardiac arrest secondary to sustained VT.

                An Easily Forgotten Tube

                  Karen Ousey, PhD, RGN; February 2014
                  A patient admitted for acute liver failure, acute renal failure, respiratory failure, and hepatic encephalopathy had a rectal tube placed to manage diarrhea. Two weeks into his hospitalization, dark red liquid stool was noted in the rectal tube, and the patient was found to have a large ulcerated area in the rectum, likely caused by the tube.

                  New Oral Anticoagulants

                  • SPOTLIGHT CASE
                  Margaret C. Fang, MD, MPH; December 2013
                  Two days after knee replacement surgery, a woman with a history of deep venous thrombosis receiving pain control via epidural catheter was restarted on her outpatient dose of rivaroxaban (a newer oral anticoagulant). Although the pain service fellow scanned the medication list for traditional anticoagulants, he did not notice the patient was taking rivaroxaban before removing the epidural catheter, placing the patient at very high risk for bleeding.

                  Check the Anesthesia Machine

                    Daniel Saddawi-Konefka, MD, and Jeffrey B. Cooper, PhD; December 2013
                    Prior to coronary artery bypass surgery, a man with morbid obesity, hypertension, diabetes, sleep apnea, claustrophobia, and 3-vessel coronary artery disease was given oxygen to achieve pre-oxygenation. Within a few minutes, the anesthesia team noted the patient was unresponsive with shallow breathing. Further investigation revealed the anesthesia machine was delivering 12% desflurane (a general anesthetic) instead of oxygen alone.

                    SNFs: Opening the Black Box

                      Joseph G. Ouslander, MD, and Alice Bonner, PhD, GNP; December 2013
                      Following a lengthy hospitalization, an elderly woman was admitted to a skilled nursing facility for further care, where staff expressed concern about the complexity of the patient's illness. A few days later, the patient developed a fever and shortness of breath, prompting readmission to the acute hospital.

                      It's Sarah, Not Stephen!

                      • SPOTLIGHT CASE
                      Urmimala Sarkar, MD, MPH; October 2013
                      Although the mother of a child, born male who identified as and expressed externally as a girl, had alerted the clinic of the child's preferred name when making the appointment, the medical staff called for the patient in the waiting room using her legal (masculine) name.

                      Are You Mrs. A? An Issue of Identification Over Telephone

                        Jason S. Adelman, MD, MS; October 2013
                        After a hospitalized patient died, the intern went to fill out the death certificate and notify the family. However, he picked up the chart of a different patient and mistakenly notified another patient's wife that her husband had died. He soon realized he'd notified the wrong family.

                        Finding Fault With the Default Alert

                          Melissa Baysari, PhD; October 2013
                          An epilepsy patient's discharge plan included phenytoin to be taken once daily. The prescribing physician was somewhat unfamiliar with the electronic medical record (EMR), didn't notice that the default frequency for phenytoin was "TID," and overrode the resultant computerized alert about the high dosage.

                          The Pains of Chronic Opioid Usage

                          • SPOTLIGHT CASE
                          Laxmaiah Manchikanti, MD, and Joshua A. Hirsch, MD; September 2013
                          Hospitalized for pneumonia and asthma, a man with chronic pain was found to be using pain medications not prescribed to him. During his hospitalization, the pain service was consulted and changed his medications to better control the pain. Five days after discharge, the patient died, presumably from an unintentional overdose of his old and new prescriptions.

                          DRESSed for Failure

                            Erika Abramson, MD, MS, and Rainu Kaushal, MD, MPH; September 2013
                            After a new electronic health record was introduced without automatically transferring patients' allergy information to the corresponding fields, a woman was given an antibiotic she was allergic to, which resulted in her being admitted to the intensive care unit.

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