MMWR- Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
MMWR News Synopsis for January 21, 2016
Maternity Care Practices and Breastfeeding among Mothers Aged ≤19 Years — United States, 2009–2011
It is important for hospitals to ensure that all mothers, including adolescent mothers, get evidence-based maternity care as part of routine care to support breastfeeding. Breastfeeding is recommended by health care experts in the United States and confers numerous health benefits for mothers and children, but breastfeeding rates among adolescent mothers are low. The hospitalization around birth is a critical time to reach adolescent mothers with evidence-based maternity practices, and this study aimed to examine whether maternity practices were associated with breastfeeding among adolescent mothers. Looking at nine maternity practices that are supportive of breastfeeding, CDC found that the percentage of adolescent mothers receiving the practices varied from a high of 95.4% to a low of 29.2%. The more practices adolescent mothers received, the better their breastfeeding outcomes. However, only 7.4% of adolescents received all practices significantly associated with breastfeeding; 9.6% received none.
Increasing Prevalence of Gastroschisis — 14 States, 1995–2012
New CDC research shows that the occurrence of a serious birth defect, gastroschisis, continues to increase over time. Since the 1980s, the number of babies born with gastroschisis has increased, especially among young mothers. New CDC research shows that gastroschisis continues to increase. The prevalence of gastroschisis increased from 1995 to 2012 among mothers in every age group and for each racial/ethnic group that was studied (non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, and Hispanics). The highest prevalence of gastroschisis occurred in teen mothers, with the largest increase among black teen mothers. The causes for the continued increase in the number of babies born with gastroschisis are unknown. There is an urgent need for public health research to uncover more clues.
Inadequate Diagnosis and Treatment of Malaria among Travelers Returning from Africa during the Ebola Epidemic — United States, 2014–2015
People who develop fever after returning from travel to malaria-endemic areas should immediately be tested for malaria. Those with positive malaria tests should receive appropriate antimalarial treatment.
The recent Ebola epidemic has had adverse impacts on basic medical care, including care provided in the United States. CDC has received reports of deficiencies in the management of returned travelers with fever in the United States related to concerns about the exposure of staff to Ebola, specifically related to malaria diagnosis and treatment. Malaria is a potentially deadly disease if diagnosis or treatment are delayed, and more than half of the 1,683 imported cases of malaria to the United States in 2012 were acquired in West Africa. Both Ebola and malaria are characterized by fever and malaise and can be clinically indistinguishable from one another. Febrile travelers who recently visited a malaria-endemic area should be tested for malaria immediately by blood smear microscopy, with results available within a few hours, regardless of travel to an Ebola-affected country; empiric treatment is not recommended.
Notes from the Field:
- Outbreak of Locally Acquired Cases of Dengue Fever — Hawaii, 2015
- Fight the bite!—help prevent the spread of dengue fever and other mosquito-borne illnesses by getting rid of mosquito breeding sites and protecting yourself from mosquito bites. An ongoing dengue fever outbreak on the island of Hawaii is a reminder that Hawaii, while not endemic for dengue, has mosquito species (i.e., Aedes) that can spread the virus if an infected traveler imports it. Travelers should consult and advise their healthcare provider regarding recent travel should they develop illness within 2 weeks of their return home. Healthcare providers should be alert for signs and symptoms of dengue fever as well as other infections more common in Hawaii such as leptospirosis, which may mimic dengue infection. Additionally, providers should know the warning signs and management of potential severe dengue. Hawaii residents should avoid exposure to mosquitoes, eliminate potential mosquito breeding locations from their property, and protect themselves from mosquito bites.
- Tetanus Cases After Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention — Eastern and Southern Africa, 2012–2015
- Percentage of Adults Aged 18–64 Years Who Did not Wake Up Feeling Well-Rested for ≥4 Days in the Preceding Week, by Sex and Age of Youngest Child — National Health Interview Survey, 2013–2014