sábado, 20 de agosto de 2016

CDC MMWR News Synopsis for August 18, 2016

MMWR- Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
MMWR News Synopsis for August 18, 2016

Contact Lens–Related Corneal Infections — United States, 2005–2015

The findings in this report highlight the need for continued efforts to educate contact lens wearers about how to prevent contact-lens related eye infections. A review of contact lens-related eye infections reported to the FDA’s Medical Device Report Database shows that infections can lead to long-lasting damage but are often preventable. Nearly 1 out of every 5 reports included a patient who had a scarred cornea, needed a corneal transplant, or had reduced vision after a contact-lens related eye infection. More than 1 out of every 4 reports mentioned contact lens wear and care behaviors that are known to increase a person’s chance of getting an eye infection and are easily avoided, such as wearing contact lenses while sleeping and wearing lenses for longer than prescribed.

Tobacco Advertising and Promotional Expenditures in Sports and Sporting Events — United States, 1992–2013

Restricting tobacco advertising and promotion in sports, coupled with other proven population-based measures (e.g. tobacco price increases, high-impact anti-tobacco mass media campaigns, tobacco-free policies inclusive of smokeless tobacco, and barrier-free cessation services) can help reduce tobacco use in the United States. Smokeless tobacco use is not safe and can lead to nicotine addiction; oral, pancreatic, and esophageal cancer; and other oral conditions including periodontal disease. High prevalence of smokeless tobacco use has been reported among athletes at different levels, including minor and major league baseball players, National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I male baseball players, and among male high school athletes. In March 2010, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration prohibited tobacco-brand sponsorship of regulated tobacco products in sports and entertainment events or other social or cultural events. During 1992–2013, sports-related marketing expenditures decreased significantly for both cigarettes (from $136 million in 1992 to zero dollars in 2013) and smokeless tobacco (from $34.8 million in 1992 to $2.1 million in 2013). The percentage of all marketing expenditures that were sports-related was higher for smokeless tobacco than cigarettes in each study year.

CDC Grand Rounds: Public Health Strategies to Prevent Preterm Birth

Despite recent declines in preterm birth, substantial ethnic and racial disparities persist. Early preterm birth remains a significant public health problem. There are many ongoing efforts to reduce preterm birth and its complications, and to address its associated racial and ethnic disparities. Preterm birth is a leading cause of infant morbidity and mortality in the United States. Since a peak in preterm birth of 12.8 percent in 2008, rates have declined to 11.4 percent in 2013. Despite these declines, racial and ethnic disparities persist, and early preterm birth (before 34 weeks gestation) remains a significant public health problem and a major driver of U.S. infant mortality. Strategies to reduce preterm birth and complications include discouraging non-medically-indicated deliveries, identifying and offering women at risk for preterm delivery access to effective treatments to reduce preterm birth, preventing unintended pregnancies, and giving women of childbearing age access to preconception care services that will enable them to achieve high levels of wellness, minimize risks, and enter a pregnancy in optimal health.

Notes from the Field
  • Cluster of Tuberculosis Among Marshallese Persons Residing in Arkansas — 2014–2015
  • Birth Rates Among Teens Aged 15–19 Years, by Race/Hispanic Ethnicity — National Vital Statistics System, United States, 2007 and 2015

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