Wisdom in medicine: what helps physicians after a medical error?
Plews-Ogan M, May N, Owens J, Ardelt M, Shapiro J, Bell SK. Acad Med. 2015 Sep 4; [Epub ahead of print].
This interview study with second victims—physicians who had made a serious medical error—found that although the majority disclosed the error to patient or family, less than 10% had received disclosure training. Disclosure and apology, forgiveness, and preventing recurrence helped physicians cope with medical errors.
On higher ground: ethical reasoning and its relationship with error disclosure.
Cole AP, Block L, Wu AW. BMJ Qual Saf. 2013;22:580-585.
An experimental study of medical error explanations: do apology, empathy, corrective action, and compensation alter intentions and attitudes?
Nazione S, Pace K. J Health Commun. 2015 Jul 2; [Epub ahead of print].
How Do Providers Recover from Errors?
West CP. AHRQ WebM&M [serial online]. January 2008.
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Restoring trust in VA health care.
Kizer KW, Jha AK. N Engl J Med. 2014;371:295-297.