lunes, 2 de marzo de 2015

AHRQ Patient Safety Network - Health Care-Associated Infections

AHRQ Patient Safety Network - Health Care-Associated Infections

AHRQ Patient Safety Network

Health Care-Associated Infections

Health care–associated infections (HAIs) are likely the most common complication of hospital care. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), approximately 1 in 20 hospitalized patients falls victim to an HAI, leading to nearly 100,000 deaths per year. Such infections were long accepted by clinicians as an inevitable hazard of hospitalization. However, relatively simple measures can prevent the majority of common HAIs, and as a result, hospitals and providers are under intense pressure to reduce the burden of these infections.

Four specific infections together account for more than 80% of all HAIs:

  • Surgical site infections (SSI)
  • Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI)
  • Central venous catheter–related bloodstream infections (CRBSI)
  • Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP)
In addition, infections caused by Clostridium difficile (a bacteria which causes severe diarrhea after exposure to antibiotics) are rapidly becoming more common in hospitals. Preventing the transmission of Clostridium difficile and antibiotic-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is therefore an increasing focus of attention.

Preventive Measures 
Strategies to prevent infections from C. difficile primarily involve limiting antibiotic use, which is the major precipitant of these infections, and preventing patient-to-patient transmission of the bacteria through isolation procedures and clinicians' hand hygiene. Prevention of transmission of antibiotic-resistant bacteria can follow similar principles.

Table. Specific Measures for Prevention of Health Care–Associated Infections Recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Health Care–Associated Infection
Preventive Measure
All health care–associated infections
Hand hygiene
Washing hands before and after each patient contact
Central venous catheter–related bloodstream infections (CRBSI)
Maximal sterile barrier precautions
Use aseptic technique including the use of a cap, mask, sterile gown, sterile gloves, and a large sterile sheet for the insertion of all central venous catheters (CVCs)
Chlorhexidine skin antisepsis
Use 2% chlorhexidine gluconate solution for skin sterilization at the CVC insertion site
Appropriate insertion site selection
Avoid femoral site for nonemergency CVC insertion
Prompt removal of unnecessary catheters
Removal of CVC that is no longer essential for care
Surgical site infection (SSI)
Appropriate use of perioperative antibiotics
Administration of appropriate prophylactic antibiotic, generally begun within 1 hour before skin incision and discontinued within 24 hours
Avoidance of shaving of the operative site
Use clippers or other methods for hair removal in the area of skin incision(s)
Perioperative glucose control
Maintenance of blood glucose less than 150 mg/dL during postoperative period (tighter control may be more beneficial in specific patient populations)
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP)
Semirecumbent positioning
Elevation of the head of the bed to more than 30 degrees for all mechanically ventilated patients
Daily assessment of readiness for weaning
Minimize duration of mechanical ventilation by minimizing sedative administration (including daily "sedation holidays") and/or using protocolized weaning
Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI)
Aseptic insertion and catheter care
Use of skin antisepsis at insertion and proper aseptic technique for maintenance of catheter and drainage bag; use of closed urinary drainage system
Prompt removal of unnecessary catheters
Removal of urinary catheter when no longer essential for care

(From: Ranji SR, Shetty K, Posley KA, et al. Prevention of healthcare-associated infections. In: Shojania KG, McDonald KM, Wachter RM, Owens DK, eds. Closing the Quality Gap: A Critical Analysis of Quality Improvement Strategies. Technical Review 9. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2007. AHRQ Publication No. 04-0051-6.)

Evidence of Effectiveness 

Some of the most prominent successes in the patient safety field have been achieved in the area of HAI prevention. The landmark Keystone ICU projectnearly eliminated CRBSI in intensive care units (ICUs) throughout Michigan, an achievement that has been sustained over time. While the checklist that powered the intervention has garnered considerable publicity, in-depth analysis of the project identified other equally important components (such as improving safety culture). An AHRQ-sponsored initiative that extended the Keystone ICU project nationwide has also achieved dramatic reductions in CRBSI rates.

Reduced infection rates have been demonstrated for other specific HAI following implementation of the preventive measures described in the Table, and improved hand hygiene rates have been associated with lower overall HAI rates. However, despite knowledge of effective strategies to prevent HAI, clinician adherence to these measures has long been suboptimal. Even the seemingly simple act of handwashing is routinely ignored by both physicians and nurses. More complex interventions are also not used routinely, and institutional policies on HAI prevention vary widely. Thus, current research focuses on methods of effectively implementing preventive strategies and encouraging clinicians to use these methods for all patients.

Current Context

The large burden of disease posed by HAIs has resulted in considerable regulatory attention. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) has not reimbursed hospitals for the costs of care associated with certain HAIs, including SSI, CRBSI, and CAUTI, since 2008. Reducing the risk of HAI is one of The Joint Commission's National Patient Safety Goals (NPSGs). The NPSG specifically requires adherence to hand hygiene practices and also considers death or serious disability due to HAI to be a sentinel event. Appropriate hand hygiene, influenza vaccination for health care workers, and prevention of VAP, CRBSI, and SSI are among the National Quality Forum's 30 "Safe Practices for Better Healthcare."

Public reporting of hospital-specific HAI rates is also being more widely utilized as a means of monitoring hospital quality of care. Currently, 20 states mandate reporting of HAI rates, and CMS publicly reports certain HAI rates on its Hospital Compare Web site. One important challenge in using public reporting and payment policies to catalyze efforts to decrease HAIs is that the definitions are complex and may be subject to interpretation. In this, as well as in other types of preventable adverse events, the adoption of standard, auditable definitions will be crucial in creating a fair playing field that is not subject to "gaming." Early studies of CMS's HAI reimbursement policy indicate that, perhaps due to these issues, the effect has been smaller than originally anticipated.
What's New in Health Care-Associated Infections on AHRQ PSNet
Patient Safety in Dialysis Access.
Widmer MK, Malik J, eds. Contrib Nephrol. 2015;184:1-270. ISBN: 9783318027051.
Root cause analysis to support infection control in healthcare premises.
Venier AG. J Hosp Infect. 2014 Dec 30; [Epub ahead of print].
Systematic review of the effectiveness of strategies to encourage patients to remind healthcare professionals about their hand hygiene.
Davis R, Parand A, Pinto A, Buetow S. J Hosp Infect. 2015;89:141-162.
Improving hand hygiene at eight hospitals in the United States by targeting specific causes of noncompliance.
Chassin MR, Mayer C, Nether K. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2015;41:4-12.
Efforts To Improve Patient Safety Result in 1.3 Million Fewer Patient Harms: Interim Update on 2013 Annual Hospital-Acquired Condition Rate and Estimates of Cost Savings and Deaths Averted From 2010 to 2013.
Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; December 2014. AHRQ Publication No. 15-0011-EF.
A qualitative study of senior hospital managers' views on current and innovative strategies to improve hand hygiene.
McInnes E, Phillips R, Middleton S, Gould D. BMC Infect Dis. 2014;14:611.
The impact of time at work and time off from work on rule compliance: the case of hand hygiene in health care.
Dai H, Milkman KL, Hofmann DA, Staats BR. J Appl Psychol. 2014 Nov 3; [Epub ahead of print].
Editor's Picks for Health Care-Associated Infections

From AHRQ WebM&M
Connie's Story: A Nurse's Personal Experience with MRSA.
AHRQ WebM&M [serial online]. April 2008
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
Gary A. Noskin, MD. AHRQ WebM&M [serial online]. April 2008
Environmental Safety in the OR.
Darren R. Linkin, MD; Ebbing Lautenbach, MD, MPH, MSCE. AHRQ WebM&M [serial online]. Febuary 2004
 Classic iconAn intervention to decrease catheter-related bloodstream infections in the ICU.
Pronovost P, Needham D, Berenholtz S, et al. N Engl J Med. 2006;355:2725-2732.
 Classic iconSafety of patients isolated for infection control.
Stelfox HT, Bates DW, Redelmeier DA. JAMA. 2003;290:1899-1905.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus central line–associated bloodstream infections in US intensive care units, 1997-2007.
Burton DC, Edwards JR, Horan TC, Jernigan JA, Fridkin SK. JAMA. 2009;301:727-736.
 Classic iconVeterans Affairs initiative to prevent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections.
Jain R, Kralovic SM, Evans ME, et al. N Engl J Med. 2011;364:1419-1430.
 Classic iconThe effect of hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile infection on in-hospital mortality.
Oake N, Taljaard M, van Walraven C, Wilson K, Roth V, Forster AJ. Arch Intern Med. 2010;170:1804-1810.
 Classic iconThe wisdom and justice of not paying for "preventable complications."
Pronovost PJ, Goeschel CA, Wachter RM. JAMA. 2008;299:2197-2199.
National Patient Safety Goals.
Oakbrook Terrace, IL: The Joint Commission; 2015.
Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology.
Better: A Surgeon's Notes on Performance.
Gawande A. New York, NY: Metropolitan Books; 2007. ISBN: 0805082115.
 Classic icon10 Patient Safety Tips for Hospitals.
Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; Revised December 2009. AHRQ Publication No. 10-M008.
Preventing Infections in the Hospital—What You As a Patient Can Do.
Chicago, IL: National Patient Safety Foundation.
 Classic iconThe checklist.
Gawande A. The New Yorker. December 10, 2007;83:86-95.
 Classic iconA Compendium of Strategies to Prevent Healthcare-Associated Infections in Acute Care Hospitals.
Yokoe DS, Mermel LA, Anderson DJ, et al. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2008;29:901-994.

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