CDC MMWR Summary for March 12, 2015
Invasive Cancer Incidence and Survival — United States, 2011
Two out of 3 people diagnosed with cancer survive five years or more. Approximately 1.5 million new cases of cancer were reported in the United States in 2011 according to national cancer registry data. About 2 of 3 people diagnosed with cancer survived ≥5 years after diagnosis. Prostate, female breast, lung and bronchus, and colon and rectum cancers accounted for half of all cancers diagnosed in 2011. Disparities in cancer incidence still persist, with incidence rates higher among men (508) than women (410), and ranging by state from 374 in New Mexico per 100,000 persons to 509 in the District of Columbia per 100,000 persons. These data are based on United States Cancer Statistics, the official annual federal government cancer incidence and mortality statistics for the U.S. population and for individual states, available at www.cdc.gov/uscs.
Missed Opportunities for Tetanus Postexposure Prophylaxis — California, January 2008–March 2014
Tetanus is a rare but serious vaccine-preventable disease and cases still occur. Health care providers should assess the tetanus immunization status of their patients during routine visits. For patients presenting with wounds, immediate and proper wound care and appropriate postexposure prophylaxis for tetanus can also help prevent infection. The incidence of tetanus has declined significantly since the introduction of tetanus vaccines. However, sporadic cases continue to occur, particularly in persons who are not up-to-date with tetanus immunization, which is recommended every 10 years in adults. During January 2008–March 2014, 21 cases of tetanus were reported to the California Department of Public Health. All patients were hospitalized; five died. Only half of the patients with acute injuries sought medical care, and the majority of those patients did not receive recommended post-exposure prophylaxis for tetanus. Routine vaccination of patients every 10 years is the best way to prevent tetanus, but health care providers should be familiar with the recommendations for tetanus postexposure prophylaxis. Providers should also be aware of dosage recommendations for postexposure and treatment dosages of tetanus immune globulin.
Stressful Life Events Experienced by Women in the Year Before Their Infants’ Births — United States, 2000–2010
Report of stressful life events by pregnant women decreased from 2000 to 2010; however, stressful events are common among all pregnant women. Stress during pregnancy is associated with preterm birth, low birth weight, anxiety, and depression. Data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System showed that self-reported stressful life events (SLEs) experienced during the year before an infant’s birth decreased slightly from 2000 to 2010. In 2010, over 70% of all women reported 1 or more SLEs, with financial stressors reported most commonly. Younger and unmarried women, women with less than a college education, and women covered by Medicaid for prenatal care and/or delivery reported more stressful life events. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends that all pregnant women receive psychosocial screening and referral, as needed, during prenatal visits. Clinicians should be aware of the prevalence and risk of stress among their pregnant patients.
Bacterial Enteric Infections Detected by Culture-Independent Diagnostic Tests — FoodNet, United States, 2012–2013
Culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs) help doctors diagnose infections faster, and the use of these tests is increasing. However, these tests do not provide the information needed to characterize the bacteria that cause the infections — information that is needed to detect foodborne outbreaks and monitor disease trends. In this report, we highlighted the uptake in the use of culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs) for diagnosing intestinal bacterial infections transmitted commonly by food. CIDTs work by detecting the presence of a specific antigen or genetic sequence of a germ. CIDTs do not require isolation and identification of living organisms by culture. Consequently, these tests can be conducted more rapidly and yield results far sooner than can be reached through traditional culturing methods. However, CIDTs do not provide the information needed to characterize the organisms that cause infections — information that is needed to detect outbreaks and monitor disease trends.
Notes from the Field:
Multistate Outbreak of Human Salmonella Infections Linked to Live Poultry from a Mail-Order Hatchery in Ohio — February–October 2014