viernes, 31 de julio de 2015

CDC MMWR News Synopsis for July 30, 2015

MMWR- Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report                          
MMWR News Synopsis for July 30, 2015
Prevalence of Disability and Disability Type Among Adults — United States, 2013

One in 5 adults in the United States lives with a disability. Health professionals and health care systems should implement programs that meet the needs of this growing population. A new report provides a snapshot of the demographic and socioeconomic aspects of people with disabilities in the U.S. The most common functional disability type reported was serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs (mobility), followed by disability in cognition, independent living, vision, and self-care. Higher percentages of people with disabilities are generally found in southern states. Older adults, women, racial and ethnic minorities, and people with lower education or household income are more likely to report a disability.

National, Regional, State, and Selected Local Area Vaccination Coverage Among Adolescents Aged 13–17 Years — United States, 2014

Four out of 10 adolescent girls and 6 out of 10 adolescent boys haven’t started the HPV vaccine series, leaving many adolescents vulnerable to cancers caused by HPV infection. While there was a small increase nationally in first-dose HPV vaccine coverage among girls for the second year in a row, a handful of diverse states and local areas achieved large increases, which show that it is possible to do much better. Tdap and meningococcal vaccine coverage rates in this age group are at high levels nationally, showing that there are opportunities to improve HPV vaccination coverage. Clinicians are urged to give a strong and effective recommendation for HPV vaccine in the same way and on the same day they recommend other vaccines routinely recommended for adolescents. Despite increases, human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates remained low in 2014While there was a small increase nationally in first-dose HPV vaccine coverage among girls, a handful of diverse state and local areas achieved large increases. These states can provide insight on what strategies are effective at improving HPV vaccination coverage. High levels of coverage with Tdap and meningococcal vaccines highlight the potential to reduce missed opportunities for HPV vaccination. Clinicians should recommend HPV vaccine in the same way and on the same day they recommend other vaccines for adolescents.

Aviation-Related Wildland Firefighter Fatalities — United States, 2000–2013

Airplanes and helicopters are integral to the management and suppression of wildfires, often operating in high-risk, low-altitude environments. Using the most stringent safety guidelines available for each activity during all phases of firefighting will help firefighters, flight crews and fire managers assess risk, limit exposure, share information and enhance teamwork when using aircraft to fight wildfires. A CDC study of fatalities among wildland firefighters showed that during 2000–2013, 78 wildland firefighters were fatally injured while participating in wildland fire duties involving aircraft.   Aircraft crashes accounted for the most fatalities. The leading causes of fatal aircraft crashes, which include fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters, were: engine, structure, or component failure; pilots’ loss of control; failure to maintain clearance from terrain, water or objects; and hazardous weather.  Although the number of wildland firefighter deaths due to aviation-related incidents have decreased in recent years, working with and around aircraft is still one of the highest risk activities for firefighters. To ensure a safer fleet, agencies responsible for fighting fires have instituted polices, protocols and training requirements to better protect the health and safety of these workers.

Current Cigarette Smoking Among Workers in Accommodation and Food Services — United States, 2011–2013

An estimated 2.4 million workers in the food and accommodation services sector still smoke cigarettes, and accommodation and food services sector workers remains in the top three industries with highest cigarette smoking prevalences. Considerable progress has been made during the past decade in reducing smoking, with implementation of comprehensive smoke-free laws in indoor and public places and worksites and with increasing numbers of states having comprehensive smoke-free laws that prohibit smoking in all indoor areas of worksites, restaurants, and bars. These proven effective interventions, in concert with other proven population-based interventions including increasing tobacco prices, hard-hitting mass media campaigns, and ensuring barrier-free access to quitting assistance could result in a substantial reduction in tobacco use and tobacco-related illness and death, specifically in workplaces with higher smoking prevalences. Workers in the accommodation and food service sectors have a higher prevalence of cigarette smoking than among all other civilian US working adults, with no significant changes in prevalence since 2004-2010. According to CDC data analyzed for the 2011–2013 time period, an estimated 25.9% of accommodation and food services workers were current cigarette smokers, which is nearly 50% higher than all other US working adults. This is greater than the target of Healthy People 2020 objective of reducing cigarette smoking to ≤12% by U.S. adults. Effective employer interventions include comprehensive smoke-free workplace policies, easily accessible help for those who want to quit, and barrier-free access to cessation treatments coverage. The results of this study indicate a need to better understand the reasons for higher smoking prevalence observed among accommodation and food service workers.

Notes from the Field:
Outbreak of Botulism Associated with a Church Potluck — Ohio, 2015
Multistate Outbreak of Human Salmonella Poona Infections Associated with Pet Turtle Exposure — United States, 2014
Atypical Presentations of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Caused by Coxsackievirus A6 — Minnesota, 2014

Death Rates from Unintentional Injury Among Adults Aged ≥65 Years, by Cause of Death and Sex — United States, 2012–2013

No hay comentarios: