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Published Date: 2018-04-24 10:35:29
Subject: PRO/PL> Panicle blight, rice - Venezuela
Archive Number: 20180424.5765480
PANICLE BLIGHT, RICE - VENEZUELA
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Date: Thu 19 Apr 2018
Source: World Grain News [edited]
http://www.world-grain.com/articles/news_home/World_Grain_News/2018/04/Disease_hurting_rice_productio.aspx?ID=%7B24E80A3A-6CAF-47AB-921B-62732E83470A%7D


A devastating panicle blight disease affecting the major rice growing regions of Venezuela is expected to contribute to the lowest output of milled rice in that country since 1972, according to the US Department of Agriculture (USDA).

Production of rice in the 2018-19 marketing year is forecast down 49 per cent from 2017-18. The disease also is forecast to have an impact on area harvested to rice for 2018-19 at 70 000 hectares [about 173 000 acres], down from 135 000 hectares [about 333 600 acres] in 2017-18.

"According to FEDEAGRO (the Venezuelan Agricultural Federation), it will be difficult to project the exact impact of the disease until the latter half of the rice growing cycle during the grain filling/ripening stage," the USDA said. "However, grave results are likely given the lack of chemical inputs to control the disease."

[Byline: Eric Schroeder]

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[_Burkholderia glumae_ causes bacterial panicle blight of rice (BPB) as well as bacterial wilts in a number of other field crops. In some areas, _B. gladioli_ has also been detected in BPB affected rice, but is generally considered a minor contributor. BPB has been known in Japan since 1955 and has more recently also been reported in other rice-producing countries around the world. For example, in the late 1990's it caused devastating yield losses in India (Bengal). Outbreaks with severe crop losses have been reported in the Americas, for example from the Dominican Republic and the southern USA. BPB is considered an emerging disease in South America.

Symptoms may include sheath, seedling and grain rots, as well as abortion of florets resulting in greatly reduced grain filling and potential yield losses of up to 40 per cent. Disease development is favoured by warm temperatures. Despite its economic importance, virulence mechanisms of _B. glumae_ are poorly understood.

The pathogen is carried on seeds and is often present in commercial rice seed. No complete resistance has been identified in rice cultivars anywhere in the world, but varieties with reduced sensitivity are available and resistance breeding programmes are in progress.

Maps
Venezuela:
https://www.ezilon.com/maps/images/southamerica/map-of-Venezuela.gif (with states) and
http://healthmap.org/promed/p/29

Pictures
Panicle blight symptoms:
https://lariceman.files.wordpress.com/2010/09/newpath-inj-g-fontenot-7-10-6.jpg,
http://www.lsuagcenter.com/topics/crops/rice/diseases/photos/bacterial-panicle-blight/bpb13,
https://image.slidesharecdn.com/002-controloptionsforricebacterialpanicleblightdongroth-100929083826-phpapp02/95/002-control-options-for-rice-bacterial-panicle-blight-don-groth-4-728.jpg?cb=1285749572,
https://www.croplifela.org/images/EN/articulos/43/anublo-foto1.png, and
http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_uvBivNzH_8Q/TE2XkCtPqWI/AAAAAAAAAFs/toDYA3tEJAQ/w1200-h630-p-k-no-nu/BPB1.jpg
BPB affected rice seeds:
http://www.agriskmanagementforum.org/farmd/sites/agriskmanagementforum.org/files/Wamishe%202.png and
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Lindsay_Triplett/publication/258826985/figure/fig1/AS:297523831951360@1447946617075/Symptoms-of-bacterial-panicle-blight-on-rice-seed-under-greenhouse-conditions-evaluated.png
Effect of BPB on different rice cultivars:
http://www.lsuagcenter.com/NR/rdonlyres/8F90178B-B2EB-46D1-BD3E-A1B507E97A2B/39327/rushfigure4_w200.jpg and
https://encrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSu0Qv8IdGGLVGaivEKBahw-ro1b2SHVu7_cGCxR-C4Lohh8e_7EA
BPB photo galleries:
http://www.ipmimages.org/browse/subimages.cfm?area=125&sub=56017 and
http://www.lsuagcenter.com/topics/crops/rice/diseases/photos/bacterial-panicle-blight

Links
Information on panicle blight of rice:
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1672630816300014 (review),
https://www.croplifela.org/en/diseases/bacterial-panicle-blight,
http://www.planthealthaustralia.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/Panicle-blight-CP-2008.pdf,
http://www.lsuagcenter.com/portals/communications/publications/agmag/archive/2011/summer/bacterial-panicle-blight-an-emerging-rice-disease,
http://www.lsuagcenter.com/NR/rdonlyres/676D0BE2-0CD8-4EE0-B8FA-331C11D92577/74885/pub3106BacterialPanicleBlightHIGHRES.pdf,
http://www.lsuagcenter.com/en/communications/publications/agmag/Archive/2007/Summer/Partial+Resistance+to+Bacterial+Panicle+Blight+in+Jupiter+Rice.htm,
http://www.agriskmanagementforum.org/content/bacterial-panicle-blight-rice,
http://www.arkansas-crops.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/Panicle-Blight-Small.pdf (with pictures),
http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/doi/abs/10.1094/PDIS-93-9-0896, and
http://www.slideshare.net/CIAT/poster-impresion-1-compatibility-mode
_B. glumae_ taxonomy:
http://www.uniprot.org/taxonomy/337
Genus _Burkholderia_ taxonomy and species list:
http://www.uniprot.org/taxonomy/32008
- Mod.DHA]

See Also

2012
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Undiagnosed disease, rice - Ecuador: (EO) 20120509.1127065
2011
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Panicle blight, rice - Colombia: update 20110701.1994
Rice diseases - Costa Rica, Bangladesh 20110425.1289
2010
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Blight diseases, rice & pumpkin - USA 20100723.2468
Panicle blight, rice - Dominican Republic 20100204.0375
2009
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Panicle blight, rice - Colombia (TO, HU) 20090921.3315
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