Preventing Chronic Disease | The Effect of Philadelphia and Pennsylvania Clean Indoor Air Act on Food Services and Drinking Places Sales and Numbers, 1998-2011 - CDC
The Effect of Philadelphia and Pennsylvania Clean Indoor Air Act on Food Services and Drinking Places Sales and Numbers, 1998-2011
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Zhen-qiang Ma, MD, MPH, MS; Monica A. Fisher, PhD, DDS, MS, MPH
Suggested citation for this article: Ma Z, Fisher MA. The Effect of Philadelphia and Pennsylvania Clean Indoor Air Act on Food Services and Drinking Places Sales and Numbers, 1998-2011. Prev Chronic Dis 2013;10:130143. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5888/pcd10.130143.
Philadelphia enacted its Clean Indoor Air Act (CIAA) nearly 2 years before the statewide CIAA. In this study, we assessed the economic impact of CIAAs on 4 types of food services and drinking places and addressed the predominant limitation of previous pre–post ban studies, namely the lack of control for confounders and changes in secular trends over time.
We analyzed data from Pennsylvania Department of Revenue Quarterly 1998–2011 taxable county-level revenue sales and number of food services and drinking places. Region-specific and type-specific adjusted sales and number of food services and drinking places accounted for consumer spending as a general economic indicator. Segmented regression analysis of interrupted time-series methodology assessed changes in trend and level.
Pennsylvania CIAA had no significant effect on adjusted sales or numbers except for an increase in sales in Philadelphia for limited-service eating places and in the surrounding 4 counties for special food services. Philadelphia CIAA was associated with an increase in adjusted numbers of full-service restaurants in Philadelphia and the rest of the state, special food services in Philadelphia, and drinking places in the rest of the state, and a decrease in the number of special food services in the surrounding counties. Philadelphia CIAA had no significant effect on adjusted sales except for an increase in special food services in the rest of the state.
Overall, CIAAs had no negative business-related impact and, for the most part, suggest a positive impact on restaurant sales and numbers. Our results provide further support for comprehensive CIAA ordinance for restaurants.
Author InformationCorresponding Author: Zhen-qiang Ma, MD, MPH, MS, Pennsylvania Department of Health, Bureau of Epidemiology, 625 Forster St, Room 1000, Harrisburg, PA 17120. Telephone: 717-547-3224. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Author Affiliations: Monica A. Fisher, Pennsylvania Department of Health, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania.
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