Int J Med Inform. 2013 Jan;82(1):25-38. doi: 10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2012.04.005. Epub 2012 May 16.
Conducting an efficient proactive risk assessment prior to CPOE implementation in an intensive care unit.
Hundt AS, Adams JA, Schmid JA, Musser LM, Walker JM, Wetterneck TB, Douglas SV, Paris BL, Carayon P.
SourceCenter for Quality and Productivity Improvement, University of Wisconsin-Madison, United States. firstname.lastname@example.org
PURPOSE:To develop, conduct, and evaluate a proactive risk assessment (PRA) of the design and implementation of CPOE in an ICU.
METHODS:We developed a PRA method based on issues identified from documented experience with conventional PRA methods and the constraints of an organization about to implement CPOE in an intensive care unit. The PRA method consists of three phases: planning (three months), team (one five-hour meeting), and evaluation (short- and long-term).
RESULTS:Sixteen unique relevant vulnerabilities were identified as a result of the PRA team's efforts. Negative consequences resulting from the vulnerabilities included potential patient safety and quality of care issues, non-compliance with regulatory requirements, increases in cognitive burden on CPOE users, and/or worker inconvenience or distress. Actions taken to address the vulnerabilities included redesign of the technology, process (workflow) redesign, user training, and/or ongoing monitoring. Verbal and written evaluation by the team members indicated that the PRA method was useful and that participants were willing to participate in future PRAs. Long-term evaluation was accomplished by monitoring an ongoing "issues list" of CPOE problems identified by or reported to IT staff. Vulnerabilities identified by the team were either resolved prior to CPOE implementation (n=7) or shortly thereafter (n=9). No other issues were identified beside those identified by the team.
CONCLUSIONS:Generally positive results from the various evaluations including a long-term evaluation demonstrate the value of developing an efficient PRA method that meets organizational and contextual requirements and constraints.
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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