Prevention and Control of Seasonal Influenza with Vaccines
|Recommendations and Reports |
Volume 62, No. RR-7
September 20, 2013
Prevention and Control of Seasonal Influenza with Vaccines: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices — United States, 2013–2014
Recommendations and ReportsSeptember 20, 2013 / 62(RR07);1-43
The material in this report originated in the National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Anne Schuchat, MD, Director; Influenza Division, Nancy Cox, PhD, Director; and the National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Beth Bell, MD, Director; Immunization Safety Office, Frank DeStefano, MD, Director.
Corresponding preparer: Lisa Grohskopf, Influenza Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, CDC. E-mail: email@example.com.
SUMMARYThis report updates the 2012 recommendations by CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) regarding the use of influenza vaccines for the prevention and control of seasonal influenza (CDC. Prevention and control of influenza with vaccines: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices [ACIP]. MMWR 2012;61:613–8). Routine annual influenza vaccination is recommended for all persons aged ≥6 months. For the 2013–14 influenza season, it is expected that trivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV3) will be replaced by a quadrivalent LAIV formulation (LAIV4). Inactivated influenza vaccines (IIVs) will be available in both trivalent (IIV3) and quadrivalent (IIV4) formulations. Vaccine virus strains included in the 2013–14 U.S. trivalent influenza vaccines will be an A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)–like virus, an H3N2 virus antigenically like the cell-propagated prototype virus A/Victoria/361/2011, and a B/Massachusetts/2/2012–like virus. Quadrivalent vaccines will include an additional influenza B virus strain, a B/Brisbane/60/2008–like virus, intended to ensure that both influenza B virus antigenic lineages (Victoria and Yamagata) are included in the vaccine. This report describes recently approved vaccines, including LAIV4, IIV4, trivalent cell culture-based inactivated influenza vaccine (ccIIV3), and trivalent recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV3). No preferential recommendation is made for one influenza vaccine product over another for persons for whom more than one product is otherwise appropriate. This information is intended for vaccination providers, immunization program personnel, and public health personnel. These recommendations and other information are available at CDC's influenza website (http://www.cdc.gov/flu); any updates also will be found at this website. Vaccination and health-care providers should check the CDC influenza website periodically for additional information.
IntroductionInfluenza viruses typically circulate widely in the United States annually from the late fall through early spring. Although most persons who become infected with influenza viruses will recover without sequelae, influenza can cause serious illness and death, particularly among persons aged ≥65 years and <2 and="" complications="" conditions="" confer="" for="" from="" high="" i="" influenza="" medical="" risk="" that="" those="" with="" years="">1–42>
). During 30 seasons from the 1976–77 season through the 2005–06 season, estimated influenza-associated deaths ranged from 3,000 to 49,000 annually (4). Annual influenza vaccination is the primary means of preventing influenza and its complications. There are many types of influenza vaccines, and the naming conventions have evolved over time (Box). Routine annual influenza vaccination for all persons aged ≥6 months who do not have contraindications has been recommended by the CDC and CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) since 2010 (5 ). This report provides updated recommendations and guidance for vaccination providers regarding the use of influenza vaccines for the 2013–14 season.
MethodsACIP provides annual recommendations for the prevention and control of influenza. The ACIP Influenza Work Group* meets by teleconference every 2–4 weeks throughout the year. Work Group membership includes several voting members of ACIP and representatives of ACIP Liaison Organizations. Discussions include topics such as influenza surveillance, vaccine effectiveness and safety, vaccine coverage, program feasibility, cost-effectiveness, and vaccine supply. Presentations are requested from invited experts, and published and unpublished data are discussed. For newly licensed influenza vaccines, discussion pertaining to new recommendations in this report included presentations of clinical data. For minor modifications to the recommendations for vaccination of persons with egg allergy, discussion included a review of influenza vaccine safety surveillance data from the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) for the 2012–13 season (see Surveillance for Anaphylaxis Following Influenza Vaccination).
Information presented in this report reflects recommendations presented during public meetings of the ACIP and approved on February 21, 2013, and on June 20, 2013. Meeting minutes and information on ACIP membership and conflicts of interest are available on the ACIP website (http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/acip/meetings/meetings-info.html). Modifications were made to the ACIP statement during subsequent review at CDC to update and clarify wording in the document. Further updates, if needed, will be posted at CDC's influenza website (http://www.cdc.gov/flu).
Primary Changes and Updates in the RecommendationsRoutine annual influenza vaccination of all persons aged ≥6 months continues to be recommended. No preferential recommendation is made for one influenza vaccine product over another for persons for whom more than one product is otherwise appropriate. Updated information and guidance in this document include the following:
- 2013–14 U.S. trivalent influenza vaccines will contain an A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)–like virus, an H3N2 virus antigenically like the cell-propagated prototype virus A/Victoria/361/2011, and a B/Massachusetts/2/2012–like virus. Quadrivalent vaccines will include an additional vaccine virus strain, a B/Brisbane/60/2008–like virus.
- Several new, recently licensed vaccines will be available for the 2013–14 season and are acceptable alternatives to other licensed vaccines indicated for their respective age groups. These vaccines include the following:
- A quadrivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV4; Flumist Quadrivalent [MedImmune, Gaithersburg, Maryland]) is expected to replace the trivalent (LAIV3) formulation. FluMist Quadrivalent is indicated for healthy, nonpregnant persons aged 2 through 49 years.
- A quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV4; Fluarix Quadrivalent [GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina]) will be available, in addition to the previous trivalent formulation. Fluarix Quadrivalent is indicated for persons aged ≥3 years.
- A quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV4; Fluzone Quadrivalent [Sanofi Pasteur, Swiftwater, Pennsylvania]) will be available, in addition to the previous trivalent formulation. Fluzone Quadrivalent is indicated for persons aged ≥6 months.
- A quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV4; FluLaval Quadrivalent [ID Biomedical Corporation/GlaxoSmithKline]) will be available, in addition to the previous trivalent formulation. FluLaval Quadrivalent is indicated for persons aged ≥3 years.
- A trivalent cell culture-based inactivated influenza vaccine (ccIIV3; Flucelvax [Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, Cambridge, Massachusetts]) is indicated for persons aged ≥18 years.
- A recombinant hemagglutinin (HA) vaccine (RIV3; FluBlok [Protein Sciences, Meriden, Connecticut]) is indicated for persons aged 18 through 49 years.
- RIV3, an egg-free vaccine, is now an option for vaccination of persons aged 18 through 49 years with egg allergy of any severity.
- For persons with egg allergy who have no known history of egg exposure but for whom results suggestive of egg allergy have been obtained on previous allergy testing, consultation with a physician with expertise in the management of allergic conditions is recommended before vaccination.