sábado, 8 de agosto de 2015

Hookah-Related Twitter Chatter: A Content Analysis

full-text ►

Hookah-Related Twitter Chatter: A Content Analysis

CDC. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC 24/7: Saving Lives. Protecting People.

Prostate Cancer Screening

 Ecard - Prostate Cancer Screening
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among American men. Share this e-card with the men in your life for more information prostate cancer risk factors and screening recommendations. .

PCD logo

Hookah-Related Twitter Chatter: A Content Analysis

Melissa J. Krauss, MPH; Shaina J. Sowles, MPH; Megan Moreno, MD, MSEd, MPH; Kidist Zewdie, BA; Richard A. Grucza, PhD, MPE; Laura J. Bierut, MD; Patricia A. Cavazos-Rehg, PhD

Suggested citation for this article: Krauss MJ, Sowles SJ, Moreno M, Zewdie K, Grucza RA, Bierut LJ, et al. Hookah-Related Twitter Chatter: A Content Analysis. Prev Chronic Dis 2015;12:150140. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.5888/pcd12.150140.


Hookah smoking is becoming increasingly popular among young adults and is often perceived as less harmful than cigarette use. Prior studies show that it is common for youth and young adults to network about substance use behaviors on social media. Social media messages about hookah could influence its use among young people. We explored normalization or discouragement of hookah smoking, and other common messages about hookah on Twitter.
From the full stream of tweets posted on Twitter from April 12, 2014, to May 10, 2014 (approximately 14.5 billion tweets), all tweets containing the terms hookah, hooka, shisha, or sheesha were collected (n = 358,523). The hookah tweets from Twitter users (tweeters) with high influence and followers were identified (n = 39,824) and a random sample of 5,000 tweets was taken (13% of tweets with high influence and followers). The sample of tweets was qualitatively coded for normalization (ie, makes hookah smoking seem common and normal or portrays positive experiences with smoking hookah) or discouragement of hookah smoking, and other common themes using crowdsourcing.
Approximately 87% of the sample of tweets normalized hookah use, and 7% were against hookah or discouraged its use. Nearly half (46%) of tweets that normalized hookah indicated that the tweeter was smoking hookah or wanted to smoke hookah, and 19% were advertisements/promotions for hookah bars or products.
Educational campaigns about health harms from hookah use and policy changes regarding smoke-free air laws and tobacco advertising on the Internet may be useful to help offset the influence of pro-hookah messages seen on social media.


This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers R01 DA039455, R01 DA032843, K02 DA021237, R01 DA031288].

Author Information

Corresponding Author: Melissa J. Krauss, MPH, Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Ave, Box 8134, St. Louis, MO 63110. Telephone: 314-362-9003. Email: kraussm@psychiatry.wustl.edu.
Author Affiliations: Shaina J. Sowles, Kidist Zewdie, Richard A. Grucza, Laura J. Bierut, Patricia A. Cavazos-Rehg, Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri; Megan Moreno, Seattle Children’s Research Institute, Center for Child Health Behavior and Development, Seattle, Washington.


  1. Cobb C, Ward KD, Maziak W, Shihadeh AL, Eissenberg T. Waterpipe tobacco smoking: an emerging health crisis in the United States. Am J Health Behav 2010;34(3):275–85. CrossRefPubMed
  2. Arrazola RA, Singh T, Corey CG, Husten CG, Neff LJ, Apelberg BJ, et al. ; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Tobacco use among middle and high school students - United States, 2011-2014. [Errata in: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2015;64(15)426]. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2015;64(14):381–5. PubMed
  3. Johnston LD, O’Malley PM, Bachman JG, Schulenberg JE. Monitoring the Future: national results on adolescent drug use. Overview of key findings, 2011. Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research, The University of Michigan; 2012.
  4. World Health Organization Study Group on Tobacco Product Regulation. Waterpipe tobacco smoking: health effects, research needs and recommended actions by regulators. Geneva (CH): WHO Document Production Services; 2005.
  5. Eissenberg T, Shihadeh A. Waterpipe tobacco and cigarette smoking: direct comparison of toxicant exposure. Am J Prev Med 2009;37(6):518–23. CrossRef PubMed
  6. Heinz AJ, Giedgowd GE, Crane NA, Veilleux JC, Conrad M, Braun AR, et al. A comprehensive examination of hookah smoking in college students: use patterns and contexts, social norms and attitudes, harm perception, psychological correlates and co-occurring substance use. Addict Behav 2013;38(11):2751–60. CrossRef PubMed
  7. Smith-Simone S, Maziak W, Ward KD, Eissenberg T. Waterpipe tobacco smoking: knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behavior in two US samples. Nicotine Tob Res 2008;10(2):393–8.CrossRef PubMed
  8. Griffiths MA, Harmon TR, Gilly MC. Hubble bubble trouble: the need for education about and regulation of hookah smoking. J Public Policy Mark 2011;30(1):119–32. CrossRef
  9. Cavazos-Rehg P, Krauss M, Grucza R, Bierut L. Characterizing the followers and tweets of a marijuana-focused Twitter handle. J Med Internet Res 2014;16(6):e157. CrossRef PubMed
  10. Cavazos-Rehg PA, Krauss M, Fisher SL, Salyer P, Grucza RA, Bierut LJ. Twitter chatter about marijuana. J Adolesc Health 2015;56(2):139–45. CrossRef PubMed
  11. Cavazos-Rehg PA, Krauss MJ, Sowles SJ, Bierut LJ. Hey everyone, I’m drunk. An evaluation of drinking-related Twitter chatter. J Stud Alcohol Drugs 2015;76(4):635–43. CrossRef PubMed
  12. Dadich AM, Burton SM, Soboleva A. Promotion of alcohol on Twitter. Med J Aust 2013;199(5):327–9. CrossRef PubMed
  13. Brockman LN, Pumper MA, Christakis DA, Moreno MA. Hookah’s new popularity among US college students: a pilot study of the characteristics of hookah smokers and their Facebook displays. BMJ Open 2012;2(6):e001709. CrossRef PubMed
  14. Myslín M, Zhu SH, Chapman W, Conway M. Using Twitter to examine smoking behavior and perceptions of emerging tobacco products. J Med Internet Res 2013;15(8):e174. CrossRefPubMed
  15. Brenner J. Pew Internet: Social Networking 2014. http://www.pewinternet.org/fact-sheets/social-networking-fact-sheet/. Accessed October 17, 2014.
  16. The Klout Score. Klout. https://klout.com/corp/score. Accessed April 20, 2015.
  17. Ryan GW, Bernard HR. Data management and analysis methods. In: Norman Densin, Yvonna Lincoln, editors. Handbook of Qualitative Research. 2nd edition. Thousand Oaks (CA): Sage Publications; 2000. p. 769-802.
  18. Glaser BG, Strauss AL. The discovery of grounded theory; strategies for qualitative research. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Co; 1967.
  19. Huang J, Kornfield R, Szczypka G, Emery SL. A cross-sectional examination of marketing of electronic cigarettes on Twitter. Tob Control 2014;23(Suppl 3):iii26–30. CrossRef PubMed
  20. Johnston LD, O’Malley PM, Miech RA, Bachman JG, Schulenberg JE. Monitoring the Future National Results on Drug Use: 1975–2013. Overview, Key Findings on Adolescent Drug Use. Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research, The University of Michigan; 2014.
  21. Simons-Morton BG, Farhat T. Recent findings on peer group influences on adolescent smoking. J Prim Prev 2010;31(4):191–208. CrossRef PubMed
  22. Braun RE, Glassman T, Wohlwend J, Whewell A, Reindl DM. Hookah use among college students from a Midwest university. J Community Health 2012;37(2):294–8. CrossRef PubMed
  23. Noonan D. Exemptions for hookah bars in clean indoor air legislation: a public health concern. Public Health Nurs 2010;27(1):49–53. CrossRef PubMed
  24. Primack BA, Hopkins M, Hallett C, Carroll MV, Zeller M, Dachille K, et al. US health policy related to hookah tobacco smoking. Am J Public Health 2012;102(9):e47–51. CrossRef PubMed
  25. Morris DS, Fiala SC, Pawlak R. Opportunities for policy interventions to reduce youth hookah smoking in the United States. Prev Chronic Dis 2012;9:E165. CrossRef PubMed
  26. Mangold WG, Faulds DJ. Social media: the new hybrid element of the promotion mix. Bus Horiz 2009;52(4):357–65. CrossRef
  27. Freeman B. New media and tobacco control. Tob Control 2012;21(2):139–44. CrossRef PubMed
  28. Grana R, Benowitz N, Glantz SA. E-cigarettes: a scientific review. Circulation 2014;129(19):1972–86. CrossRef PubMed
  29. Niaura RS, Glynn TJ, Abrams DB. Youth experimentation with e-cigarettes: another interpretation of the data. JAMA 2014;312(6):641–2. CrossRef PubMed
  30. Pelucchi C, Gallus S, Garavello W, Bosetti C, La Vecchia C. Alcohol and tobacco use, and cancer risk for upper aerodigestive tract and liver. Eur J Cancer Prev 2008;17(4):340–4. CrossRefPubMed
  31. Fligiel SE, Roth MD, Kleerup EC, Barsky SH, Simmons MS, Tashkin DP. Tracheobronchial histopathology in habitual smokers of cocaine, marijuana, and/or tobacco. Chest 1997;112(2):319–26.CrossRef PubMed

No hay comentarios: