Prevalence of Self-Reported Sleep Problems Among People With Diabetes in the United States, 2005-2008
Laura Plantinga, ScM; Madhu N. Rao, MD; Dean Schillinger, MD
Suggested citation for this article: Plantinga L, Rao MN, Schillinger D. Prevalence of self-reported sleep problems among people with diabetes in the United States, 2005-2008. Prev Chronic Dis 2012;9:110244. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5888/pcd9.110244.
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Nancy Saltmarsh, Editor, Preventing Chronic Disease. Disclosure: Nancy Saltmarsh has disclosed no relevant financial relationships.
Laurie Barclay, MD. Freelance writer and reviewer, Medscape, LLC. Disclosure: Laurie Barclay, MD, has disclosed no relevant financial relationships.
Disclosures: Laura Plantinga, ScM; Madhu N. Rao, MD; and Dean Schillinger, MD, have disclosed no relevant financial relationships.
Sleep problems, including insomnia, apnea, and restless legs syndrome, are common, burdensome, and under-recognized in the United States. We sought to examine the association of sleep problems with diabetes among community-dwelling US adults.
We examined self-reported sleep problems in 9,848 adults (aged ≥20 y) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005 through 2008. Sleep problem information was elicited via validated questionnaire. Diabetes was defined by self-reported diagnosis or glycohemoglobin of 6.5% or higher. Multivariable logistic regression with US population-based weighting was used to obtain adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for various sleep problems by diabetes status.
Sleep problems were common (>90% for any problem; 10%-40% for individual problems) overall, and people with diabetes were more likely than those without diabetes to report multiple problems (mean, 3.1 vs 2.5, respectively, P < .001). After adjustment for potential confounders (including demographics, body mass index, cardiovascular and kidney disease, and alcohol use), restless legs symptoms (OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.12-1.78), sleep apnea (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.06-1.98), and nocturia (OR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.22-1.87) were all positively associated with diabetes status.
Diabetes is associated with a higher risk of sleep problems, including not only sleep apnea but also inadequate sleep, excessive sleepiness, leg symptoms, and nocturia, independent of body mass index. Clinicians should be aware of the high prevalence of sleep problems among their patients with diabetes and should consider screening and treatment, which may improve patients’ quality of life.