AHRQ Study Shows Clinician Education, Feedback Improve Antibiotic Prescribing
Clinicians followed antibiotic prescribing guidelines for common bacterial acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) in children more often when they received education and feedback, according to an AHRQ-funded study in the June 12 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA). The cluster randomized trial of an outpatient antimicrobial stewardship program involved 18 pediatric primary care practices during a 1-year period. The study showed that broad-spectrum prescribing decreased from 26.8 percent to 14.3 percent among those who received training and feedback. Off-guideline prescribing for pneumonia decreased from 15.7 percent to 4.2 percent and, for acute sinusitis, from 38.9 percent to 18.8 percent. Little change was noted in off-guideline prescribing for streptococcal pharyngitis and viral infections. The authors suggest that antimicrobial stewardship should be extended to the ambulatory setting because outpatients are the greatest users of antibiotics for ARTIs. Select to access the PubMed® abstract of the study, “Effect of an Outpatient Antimicrobial Stewardship Intervention on Broad-Spectrum Antibiotic Prescribing by Primary Care Pediatricians: A Randomized Trial.”
JAMA. 2013 Jun 12;309(22):2345-52. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.6287.
Effect of an outpatient antimicrobial stewardship intervention on broad-spectrum antibiotic prescribing by primary care pediatricians: a randomized trial.
Gerber JS, Prasad PA, Fiks AG, Localio AR, Grundmeier RW, Bell LM, Wasserman RC, Keren R, Zaoutis TE.
SourceDivision of Infectious Diseases, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, 3535 Market St, Ste 1518, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
IMPORTANCE:Antimicrobial stewardship programs have been effective for inpatients, often through prescribing audit and feedback. However, most antimicrobial use occurs in outpatients with acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs).
OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the effect of an antimicrobial stewardship intervention on antibiotic prescribing for pediatric outpatients.
DESIGN:Cluster randomized trial of outpatient antimicrobial stewardship comparing prescribing between intervention and control practices using a common electronic health record. After excluding children with chronic medical conditions, antibiotic allergies, and prior antibiotic use, we estimated prescribing rates for targeted ARTIs standardized for age, sex, race, and insurance from 20 months before the intervention to 12 months afterward (October 2008-June 2011).
SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS:A network of 25 pediatric primary care practices in Pennsylvania and New Jersey; 18 practices (162 clinicians) participated.
INTERVENTIONS:One 1-hour on-site clinician education session (June 2010) followed by 1 year of personalized, quarterly audit and feedback of prescribing for bacterial and viral ARTIs or usual practice.
MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:Rates of broad-spectrum (off-guideline) antibiotic prescribing for bacterial ARTIs and antibiotics for viral ARTIs for 1 year after the intervention.
RESULTS:Broad-spectrum antibiotic prescribing decreased from 26.8% to 14.3% (absolute difference, 12.5%) among intervention practices vs from 28.4% to 22.6% (absolute difference, 5.8%) in controls (difference of differences [DOD], 6.7%; P = .01 for differences in trajectories). Off-guideline prescribing for children with pneumonia decreased from 15.7% to 4.2% among intervention practices compared with 17.1% to 16.3% in controls (DOD, 10.7%; P < .001) and for acute sinusitis from 38.9% to 18.8% in intervention practices and from 40.0% to 33.9% in controls (DOD, 14.0%; P = .12). Off-guideline prescribing was uncommon at baseline and changed little for streptococcal pharyngitis (intervention, from 4.4% to 3.4%; control, from 5.6% to 3.5%; DOD, -1.1%; P = .82) and for viral infections (intervention, from 7.9% to 7.7%; control, from 6.4% to 4.5%; DOD, -1.7%; P = .93).
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:In this large pediatric primary care network, clinician education coupled with audit and feedback, compared with usual practice, improved adherence to prescribing guidelines for common bacterial ARTIs, and the intervention did not affect antibiotic prescribing for viral infections. Future studies should examine the drivers of these effects, as well as the generalizability, sustainability, and clinical outcomes of outpatient antimicrobial stewardship.
TRIAL REGISTRATION:clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01806103.
- [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]