CDC MMWR Summary for April 9, 2015
Sustained Decrease in Laboratory Detection of Rotavirus After Implementation of Routine Vaccination — United States, 2000–2014
These findings reaffirm the large public health impact of routine rotavirus vaccination on reducing the health burden of rotavirus among U.S. children. Rotavirus infection is the leading cause of severe gastroenteritis among infants and young children worldwide. The 2006 introduction of rotavirus vaccine in the childhood vaccination schedule in the United States has resulted in a substantial, sustained reduction in rotavirus circulation nationally and regionally and has changed the epidemiology of this virus. Analysis of data from the National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System shows a marked and sustained decline in rotavirus activity for the seven rotavirus reporting years from 2007 to 2014 following the implementation of routine rotavirus vaccination. These figures show a 57.8%–89.9% national decline in disease activity for each post-vaccine year compared to pre-vaccine years. Additionally, rotavirus seasons started later (if at all), were shorter, and showed lower peak activity.
Work-Related Asthma — 22 States, 2012
An estimated 1.9 million cases of asthma among adults were work-related, accounting for 15.7% of current asthma cases among adults who were ever employed. Work-related asthma is a preventable occupational lung disease that is associated with serious adverse health and economic outcomes. This report provides an updated estimate of the proportion of asthma that is work-related. In 2012 data was collected from 22 states using both landline and cellular telephone samples which indicated that 9 % of adults currently have asthma. Among the adults with current asthma who have ever been employed, 15.7% had asthma that is work-related. The study also examined state-specific proportions of work-related asthma, which ranged from 9.0% to 23.1%. These results can assist states, other government agencies, health professionals, employers, workers, and worker representatives to better target intervention and prevention efforts to reduce the burden of work-related asthma.
Ebola Active Monitoring System for Travelers Returning from West Africa — Georgia, 2014
Making use of resources such as a flexible web-based electronic system and knowledgeable epidemiology and IT staff, efficient disease surveillance systems can be quickly developed and implemented in response to urgent needs. Because of the risk of imported Ebola virus disease by infected travelers, the Georgia Department of Public Health (DPH) in October 2014 began active monitoring of all travelers from Ebola-affected countries for 21 days from their arrival in the US. DPH rapidly developed a web-based system that enabled travelers to electronically report their twice-daily temperature and symptom checks, enabling two epidemiologists to monitor 120 travelers daily and rapidly respond to travelers reporting symptoms. This was made possible by the use of Georgia’s flexible electronic disease reporting system and by DPH’s IT professionals having a thorough understanding of program needs by serving as an intrinsic part of the program areas they support. This platform can be adapted to enhance surveillance needs for other outbreaks.
Progress in Identifying Infants with Hearing Loss — United States, 2006–2012
Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) programs should continue to work with healthcare providers who provide diagnostic and early intervention services to accurately document the receipt of necessary follow-up services, thereby increasing the chance of infants receiving proper care in a timely manner to minimize the negative impact unidentified hearing loss can have on their speech, language, and emotional development. To assess progress towards identifying children with hearing loss and reducing loss to follow-up/loss to documentation for diagnostic testing and enrollment in early intervention, the CDC analyzed Early Hearing Detection and Intervention surveillance data for years 2006 through 2012. Results show that rates of hearing screening increased from 95.2% to 96.6%, diagnosis of infants not passing their final screening increased from 4.8% to 10.3%, and enrollment in early intervention of children diagnosed with permanent hearing loss increased from 55.4% to 61.7%, while the rates for lost to follow-up/lost to documentation decreased. These findings indicate sustained and continued progress towards identifying infants with hearing loss and the provision of recommended services and highlight the need for further improvements in the provision and reporting of EHDI services.
Progress Toward Measles Elimination — Philippines, 1998–2014
To achieve measles elimination in the Philippines, sustained investments are required to strengthen health systems, implement the recommended elimination strategies, and develop additional strategies to identify and reduce measles-susceptibility in specific geographical areas and older age groups. The Philippines set a national goal in 1998 to eliminate measles by 2008. This report describes progress toward measles elimination in the Philippines during 1998–2014 and challenges remaining to achieve the goal. During this period, estimated coverage with the routine first dose of measles-containing vaccine increased from 80% in 1998 to 90% in 2013. Estimated coverage with the routine second dose of measles-containing vaccine increased from 10% after nationwide introduction in 2010 to 53% in 2013. After nationwide supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) in 1998 and 2004, historic lows in annual reported measles cases and incidence occurred in 2005 and 2006. Despite nationwide follow-up SIAs in 2007 and 2011, reported cases and incidence generally increased during 2007–2012, and large measles outbreaks occurred during 2013–2014, affecting infants, young children, older children and young adults. These outbreaks were prolonged by delayed and small-scale outbreak response.