sábado, 24 de marzo de 2012

CDC Features - World TB Day 2012: Stop TB in My Lifetime

CDC Features - World TB Day 2012: Stop TB in My Lifetime

World TB Day 2012: Stop TB in My Lifetime

Tuberculosis, also called TB, is one of the world's deadliest diseases and has been affecting people for thousands of years. It's estimated that 2 billion people — one third of the people in the world — are infected with M. tuberculosis. Each year, nearly 9 million people in the world become sick with TB disease, and almost 1.5 million deaths are attributed to TB. While the number of TB cases in the United States has been declining since 1993, there remains a higher-than-normal burden of TB among racial and ethnic minorities. This is due to unequal distribution of TB risk factors that can increase the chance of developing the disease.

World TB Day

photo: A diverse group of peopleWorld TB Day is observed annually on March 24 to educate the public that TB remains a problem in much of the world, with much more needed to prevent, control, and eventually eliminate this devastating disease. This day provides an opportunity to raise awareness about TB-related problems and solutions, and to support worldwide TB-control efforts. This year, CDC is joining the global Stop TB PartnershipExternal Web Site Icon in adopting the theme, "Stop TB in my lifetime." People are encouraged to imagine a world free of TB and to state what changes they expect in their lifetimes such as a better TB test, faster treatment, or no more TB deaths.

What CDC is Doing

Researchers in CDC's Division of Tuberculosis Elimination and their partners in the TB Trials Consortium are at the forefront of the research that is striving to make the world free of TB. They recently completed a 10-year study of an innovative preventive therapy regimen that will dramatically shorten treatment for persons with latent (inactive) TB infections. This course of preventive therapy is referred to as the 12-dose regimen and contains two very effective TB drugs, isoniazid and rifapentine. It is given once weekly for 12 weeks under directly observed therapy, which means that the swallowing of each dose of medicine is observed by a health worker.
The concept of TB preventive therapy involves treating people who are infected with TB but who are not clinically ill.  Doing so can prevent those infected persons from progressing to TB disease. Preventive therapy not only prevents disease and disability in that one person; it also prevents the spread of infection to others, some of whom would develop TB in the future and then spread the bacteria to their close contacts. We can only reach the goal of a world free of TB by working together to detect, treat, and prevent this disease. 

Working Together to Stop TB in our Lifetime

Photo: World TB Day is March 24"This is not the time to be complacent about TB diagnosis and treatment. We need to maintain a clear vision of delivering same day diagnosis and treatment, if at all possible, and strive to eliminate TB in our lifetime" (Dr. Kenneth Castro, Director, Division of Tuberculosis Elimination, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)

What Can You Do?

  • Learn more about TB. Local and state coalitions are convening educational and awareness activities related to World TB Day to raise awareness of this deadly disease. Check out the activities and get involved.
  • Promote World TB Day. Send a World TB Day e-card or add a World TB Day button to your Web site to increase awareness of this important day.
Until TB is eliminated, World TB Day won't be a celebration. But it is a valuable opportunity to educate the public about the devastation of TB and how it can be stopped.

More Information

World TB Day Resources
Additional Information About TB

State TB Control Offices

(PDF Adobe PDF file - 300k)


Alabama Department of Public HealthExternal Web Site Icon
RSA Tower, Suite 1450
201 Monroe Street
Montgomery, AL 36130-3017
Tel: 334-206-5330
Fax: 334-206-5931


Alaska Department of Health & Social ServicesExternal Web Site Icon
3601 “C” Street, Suite 540
Anchorage, AK 99503-5949
Tel: 907-269-8000
Fax: 907-562-7802


Arizona Department of Health ServicesExternal Web Site Icon
150 North 18th Avenue
Phoenix, AZ 85007-3237
Tel: 602-364-4750
Fax: 602-364-3267


Arkansas Department of HealthExternal Web Site Icon
4815 West Markham St.
Slot 45
Little Rock, AR 72203
Tel: 501-661-2152
Fax: 501-661-2759


California Department of Public HealthExternal Web Site Icon
850 Marina Bay Parkway
Building P, 2nd Floor
Richmond, CA 94804-6403
Tel: 510-620-3000
Fax: 510-620-3034


Colorado Department of Public Health & Environment TB ProgramExternal Web Site Icon
4300 Cherry Creek Drive South
Denver, CO 80246-1530
Tel: 303-692-2638
Fax: 303-759-5538


Connecticut Department of Public HealthExternal Web Site Icon
410 Capitol Avenue, MS-11TUB
Hartford, CT 06134
Tel: 860-509-7722
Fax: 860-509-7743


District of Columbia Department of HealthExternal Web Site Icon
1900 Massachusetts Ave SE
Bldg. 15
Washington, D.C. 20003
Tel: 202-698-4040
Fax: 202-724-2363


Delaware Department of Health & Social ServicesExternal Web Site Icon
TB Control Program
Thomas Collins Bldg,
Suite 12, D620P
540 S. Dupont Hwy
Dover, DE 19901
Tel: 302-744-1050
Fax: 302-739-2548


Florida Department of HealthExternal Web Site Icon
4052 Bald Cypress Way, BIN #A20
Prather Building, Room 240-N
Tallahassee, FL 32399-1717
Tel: 850-245-4350
Fax: 850-921-9906


Georgia Department of Public Health Tuberculosis ProgramExternal Web Site Icon
2 Peachtree St., NW, Suite 12-493
Atlanta, GA 30303-2588
Tel: 404-657-2634
Fax: 404 463-3460


Hawaii Department of HealthExternal Web Site Icon
1700 Lanakila Avenue
Honolulu, HI 96817-2199
Tel: 808-832-5737
Fax: 808-832-5846


Idaho Department of Health & WelfareExternal Web Site Icon
450 West State Street, 4th Floor
Boise, ID 83720-0036
Tel: 208-334-5939
Fax: 208-332-7307


Illinois Department of Public HealthExternal Web Site Icon
525 West Jefferson Street, 1st Floor
Springfield, IL 62761-0001
Tel: 217-785-5371
Fax: 217-524-4515


Indiana Department of HealthExternal Web Site Icon
2 North Meridian Street, 6th Floor
Indianapolis, IN 46204
Tel: 317-233-7545
Fax: 317-233-7747


Iowa Department of Public HealthExternal Web Site Icon
Lucas State Office Building
321 East 12th Street
Des Moines, IA 50319-0075
Tel: 515-281-7504
Fax: 515-281-4570


Kansas Department of Health & EnvironmentExternal Web Site Icon
1000 Southwest Jackson Street Suite 210
Topeka, KS 66612
Tel: 785-296-8893
Fax: 785-291-3732


Kentucky Department for Public HealthExternal Web Site Icon
275 East Main Street
Frankfort, KY 40621
Tel: 502-564-7243
Fax: 502-564-0542


Louisiana Department of Health & Hospitals Office of Public Health – TB ControlExternal Web Site Icon
1010 Common Street,
Suite 1134
New Orleans, LA 70112
Tel: 504-568-5015
Fax: 504-568-5016


Maine Department of Human ServicesExternal Web Site Icon
286 Water Streeet, 8th Floor
SHS #1
Augusta, Maine 04333
Tel: 207-287-5194
Fax: 1-800-293-7534


Maryland Department of HealthExternal Web Site Icon
500 North Calver Street, 5th Floor
Baltimore, MD 21202
Tel: 410-767-6698
Fax: 410-383-1762


Massachusetts Department of Public HealthExternal Web Site Icon
305 South Street
Boston, MA 02130-3515
Tel: 617-983-6970
Fax: 617-983-6990


Michigan Department of Community HealthExternal Web Site Icon
Capitol View Building
201 Townsend Street, 5th Floor
Lansing, MI 48913
Tel: 517-335-8165
Fax: 517-335-8263


Minnesota Department of HealthExternal Web Site Icon
Freeman Office Building
625 N. Robert St. (street address)
P.O. Box 64975 (mailing address)
St. Paul, MN 55164-0975
Tel: 651-201-5414
Fax: 651-201-5500


Mississippi State Department of HealthExternal Web Site Icon
P.O. Box 1700
Jackson, MS 39215-1700
Tel: 601-576-7700
Fax: 601-576-7520


Missouri Department of HealthExternal Web Site Icon
930 Wildwood Drive
Jefferson City, MO 65109
Tel: 573-751-6113
Fax: 573-526-0235


Montana Department of Public Health and Human ServicesExternal Web Site Icon
Cogswell Building, Room C216
1400 Broadway Avenue
Helena, MT 59620
Tel: 406-444-0275
Fax: 406-444-0272


Nebraska Department of Health & Human ServicesExternal Web Site Icon
301 Centennial Mall South, 3rd Floor
Lincoln, NE 68509
Tel: 402-471-2937
Fax: 402-471-3601


Nevada State Health Division, Tuberculosis ProgramExternal Web Site Icon
Bureau of Health Statistics, Planning and Emergency Response
Office of Epidemiology
4150 Technology Way, Suite 201
Carson City, NV 89706
Phone: 775-684-5982
Fax: 775-684-5999


New Hampshire Department of Health & Human ServicesExternal Web Site Icon
Health & Welfare Building
29 Hazen Drive
Concord NH 03301-6504
Tel: 603-271-4496
Fax: 603-271-0545


New Jersey Department of Health and Senior ServicesExternal Web Site Icon
135 East State Street, 1st Floor
P.O. Box 369
Trenton, NJ 08625-0369
Tel: 609-826-4878
Fax: 609-826-4879


New Mexico Department of HealthExternal Web Site Icon
1190 Saint Francis Drive, Room S1150
Santa Fe, NM 87502
Tel: 505-827-2471
Fax: 505-827-0163


New York State Department of HealthExternal Web Site Icon
Empire State Plaza
Corning Tower, Room 840
Albany, NY 12237-0669
Tel: 518-474-7000
Fax: 518-473-6164


North Carolina Department of Health & Human ServicesExternal Web Site Icon
1200 Front Street, Suite 101
Raleigh, NC 27609
Tel: 919-733-7286
Fax: 919-733-0084


North Dakota Department of HealthExternal Web Site Icon
State Capitol
600 East Boulevard, Dept. 301
Bismarck, ND 58505-0200
Tel: 701-328-2377
Fax: 701-328-2499


Ohio Department of Health Bureau of Infectious Disease and ControlExternal Web Site Icon
35 E. Chestnut St., 7th floor
Columbus, OH 43215
Tel: 614-466-2381
Fax: 614-387-2132


Oklahoma State Department of HealthExternal Web Site Icon
1000 NE 10th Street, Room 608
Oklahoma City, OK 73117-1299
Tel: 405-271-4060
Fax: 405-271-6680


Oregon Public Health DivisionExternal Web Site Icon
800 NE Oregon, Suite 1105
Portland, OR 97232
Tel: 971-673-0174
Fax: 971-673-0178


Pennsylvania Department of Health TB Control ProgramExternal Web Site Icon
Health and Welfare Building, Room 1013
625 and Forester Street
Harrisburg, PA 17120
Tel: 717-787-6267
Fax: 717-772-4309


Rhode Island Department of HealthExternal Web Site Icon
3 Capitol Hill, Room 106
Providence, RI 02908
Tel: 401-222-2577
Fax: 401-222-2488


South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental ControlExternal Web Site Icon
Mills/Jarrett Complex, Box 101106
1751 Calhoun Street
Columbia, SC 29201
Tel: 803-898-0558
Fax: 803-898–0685


South Dakota Department of HealthExternal Web Site Icon
615 East 4th Street
Pierre, SD 57501
Tel: 605-773-4784
Fax: 605-773-5509


Tennessee Department of HealthExternal Web Site Icon
Cordell Hull Building, 1st Floor
425 5th Avenue North
Nashville, TN 37243-0001
Tel: 615-741-7247
Fax: 615-253-1370


Texas Department of State Health ServicesExternal Web Site Icon
1100 West 49th Street
Austin, TX 78756
Tel: 512-458-7455
Fax: 512-458-7601


Utah Department of Health, TB Control and Bureau of EpidemiologyExternal Web Site Icon
Box 142105
Salt Lake City, UT 84114-2105
Tel: 801-538-6191
Fax: 801-538-9913


Vermont Department of HealthExternal Web Site Icon
PO Box 70
Drawer 41
108 Cherry Street
Burlington, VT 05401
Tel: 802-863-7245
Fax: 802-863-9962


Virginia Department of HealthExternal Web Site Icon
109 Governor Street, 3rd floor
Richmond, VA 23219
Tel: 804-864-7906
Fax: 804-371-0248


Washington State Department of HealthExternal Web Site Icon
111 Israel Rd, S.E.
PO Box 47837
Olympia, WA 98504-7837
Tel: 360-236-3447
Fax: 360-236-3405


West Virginia Department of Health & Human ResourcesExternal Web Site Icon
TB Control Program, Room 125
350 Capitol Street
Charleston, WV 25301-1417
Tel: 304-558-3669
Fax: 304-558-1825


Wisconsin Department of Health & Family ServicesExternal Web Site Icon
1 West Wilson Street, Room 318
Madison, WI 53702
Tel: 608-261-6319
Fax: 608-266-0049


Wyoming Department of HealthExternal Web Site Icon
Qwest Building, Suite 510
6101 Yellowstone Road
Cheyenne, WY 82002
Tel: 307-777-5658
Fax: 307-777-5402 or 777-5573



Department of Health
American Samoa Government
Department of Health
LBJ Tropical Medical Center
P.O. Box F
Pago Pago, AS 96799
Tel: 011-684-633-4690
Fax: 011-684-633-5692


Department of Health, Education & Social Affairs
Federated States of Micronesia
P.O. Box PS-70
Kolonia, Pohnpei, FM 96941
Tel: 011-691-320-2619
Fax: 011-691-320-8382


Department of Public Health & Social Services
National TB Control Program
123 Chalan Kareta, Route 10
Manqilao, GU 96910-2816
Tel: 011-671-735-7145, 7157, or 7131
Fax: 011-671-735-7318


CNMI TB Control Program
Department of Public Health & Commonwealth Health Center
P.O. Box 500409 CK
Saipan, MP 96950-0409
Tel: 011-670-236-8376 or 8377
Fax: 011-670-236-8736


Puerto Rico Department of HealthExternal Web Site Icon
P.O. Box 70184
San Juan, PR 00936
Tel: 787-274-5553
Fax: 787-274-5554


National TB Control Program
Ministry of Health
P.O. Box 16
Majuro Hospital
Majuro, MH 96960-0016
Tel: 011-692-625-0074 or 7321
Fax: 011-692-625-4372 or 4543


Palau Ministry of Health
Republic of Palau
P.O. Box 6027
Koror, Republic of Palau 96940-0845
Tel: 011-680-488-2925 or 1360
Fax: 011-680-488-4800


Virgin Islands Department of Health
Old Municipal Hospital, Bldg. 1
Knud Hansen Complex
St. Thomas, VI 00802
Tel: 340-774-9000
Fax: 340-776-5466
CDC | TB | State TB Control Offices

Trends in Tuberculosis — United States, 2011


March 23, 2012 / 61(11);181-185
Trends in Tuberculosis — United States, 2011

In 2011, a total of 10,521 new tuberculosis (TB) cases were reported in the United States, an incidence of 3.4 cases per 100,000 population, which is 6.4% lower than the rate in 2010. This is the lowest rate recorded since national reporting began in 1953 (1). The percentage decline is greater than the average 3.8% decline per year observed from 2000 to 2008 but not as large as the record decline of 11.4% from 2008 to 2009 (2). This report summarizes 2011 TB surveillance data reported to CDC's National Tuberculosis Surveillance System. Although TB cases and rates decreased among foreign-born and U.S.-born persons, foreign-born persons and racial/ethnic minorities continue to be affected disproportionately. The rate of incident TB cases (representing new infection and reactivation of latent infection) among foreign-born persons in the United States was 12 times greater than among U.S.-born persons. For the first time since the current reporting system began in 1993, non-Hispanic Asians surpassed persons of Hispanic ethnicity as the largest racial/ethnic group among TB patients in 2011. Compared with non-Hispanic whites, the TB rate among non-Hispanic Asians was 25 times greater, and rates among non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics were eight and seven times greater, respectively. Among U.S.-born racial and ethnic groups, the greatest racial disparity in TB rates occurred among non-Hispanic blacks, whose rate was six times the rate for non-Hispanic whites. The need for continued awareness and surveillance of TB persists despite the continued decline in U.S. TB cases and rates. Initiatives to improve awareness, testing, and treatment of latent infection and TB disease in minorities and foreign-born populations might facilitate progress toward the elimination of TB in the United States.
Health departments in the 50 states and the District of Columbia electronically report to CDC verified TB cases that meet the CDC and Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists surveillance case definition.* Reports include the patient's self-identified race, ethnicity (i.e., Hispanic or non-Hispanic), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, treatment information, and drug-susceptibility test results. CDC calculates national and state TB rates overall and by racial/ethnic group, using U.S. Census Bureau population estimates (3). As of March 22, 2012, race/ethnicity intercensal population estimates were unavailable for 2011; therefore, 2010 population estimates were used as denominators to calculate 2011 case rates. The Current Population Survey provides the population denominators used to calculate TB rates and percentage changes according to national origin. Because 2011 Current Population Survey data were available, 2011 population estimates were used for U.S.-born and foreign-born TB rates. For TB surveillance, a U.S.-born person is defined as someone born in the United States or its associated jurisdictions, or someone born in a foreign country but having at least one U.S.-citizen parent. In 2011, 0.4% of patients had unknown country of birth, and 0.7% had unknown race or ethnicity. For this report, persons of Hispanic ethnicity might be of any race; non-Hispanic persons are categorized as black, Asian, white, American Indian or Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander, or of multiple races.
Compared with the national TB case rate of 3.4 cases per 100,000 population, TB rates in reporting areas ranged widely, from 0.7 in Maine to 9.3 in Alaska (median: 2.4) (Figure 1). Thirty-four states had lower rates in 2011 than in 2010; 16 states and the District of Columbia had higher rates. As in 2010, four states (California, Florida, New York, and Texas) continued to report more than 500 cases each in 2011. Combined, these four states accounted for 5,299 TB cases or approximately half (50.4%) of all TB cases reported in 2011.
Among U.S.-born persons, the number and rate of TB cases declined in 2011. The 3,929 TB cases in U.S.-born persons (37.5% of all cases in persons with known national origin) represented a 9.9% decrease compared with 2010 and a 77.5% decrease compared with 1993 (Figure 2). The rate of 1.5 TB cases per 100,000 population among U.S.-born persons represented a 10.3% decrease since 2010 and an 80.1% decrease since 1993.
The difference between the proportion of U.S.-born and foreign-born persons with TB continued to increase, although the number and rate of TB cases among foreign-born persons in the United States declined in 2011. A total of 6,546 TB cases were reported among foreign-born persons (62.5% of all cases in persons with known national origin), a 3.0% decrease from 2010. The 17.3 per 100,000 population TB rate among foreign-born persons was a 4.8% decrease since 2010 and a 49.0% decrease since 1993. In 2011, 54.1% of foreign-born persons with TB originated from five countries: Mexico (n = 1,392 [21.3%]), the Philippines (n = 750 [11.5%]), Vietnam (n = 537 [8.2%]), India (n = 498 [7.6%]), and China (n = 365 [5.6%]).
During the past 12 years, the proportion of TB cases occurring in Asians has increased steadily, from 20.5% in 2000 to 29.9% in 2011. More TB cases were reported among Asians than any other racial/ethnic group in the United States in 2011 (Table). From 2010 to 2011, TB rates decreased most for blacks, then Hispanics, whites, and Asians. Among persons with TB, 95.4% of Asians, 73.9% of Hispanics, 36.4% of blacks, and 20.9% of whites were foreign-born. Among U.S.-born persons, blacks were the racial/ethnic group with the greatest percentage of TB cases (38.6%) and the largest disparity compared with U.S.-born whites.
HIV test result reporting improved in 2011, with 81% of cases reported having a known HIV status. Among persons with TB who had a known HIV test result, 7.9% were coinfected with HIV. Vermont data were not available.§
A total of 109 cases of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR TB) were reported in 2010, the most recent year for which complete drug-susceptibility data were available. Drug-susceptibility test results for isoniazid and rifampin were reported for 97.5% and 97.1% of culture-confirmed TB cases in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Among these cases, the percentage of MDR TB for 2010 (1.3% [109 of 8,422]) was unchanged from the percentage for 2009 (1.3%). The percentage of MDR TB cases among persons without a previous history of TB has remained stable at approximately 1.0% since 1997. For persons with a previous history of TB, the percentage with MDR TB in 2010 was approximately four times greater than among persons not previously treated for TB. In 2010, foreign-born persons accounted for 90 (82.6%) of the 109 MDR TB cases. Four cases of extensively drug-resistant TB** (all occurring in foreign-born persons) have been reported for 2011.

Reported by

Roque Miramontes, MPH, Robert Pratt, Sandy F. Price, Carla Jeffries, MPH, Thomas R. Navin, MD, Div of TB Elimination, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention; Gloria E. Oramasionwu, MD, EIS Officer, CDC. Corresponding contributor: Gloria E. Oramasionwu, iyo8@cdc.gov, 404-718-8633.

Editorial Note

Despite the continued decline in U.S. TB cases and rates since 1993, the 6.4% decline from 2010 to 2011 to a rate of 3.4 per 100,000 falls short of the 2010 goal of TB elimination (less than one case per 1,000,000) set in 1989 (4). If current efforts are not improved or expanded, TB elimination is unlikely before the year 2100 (5).
In 2011, Asians became the largest single racial/ethnic group represented among TB cases, with a case rate 25 times that of non-Hispanic whites. Although the case rate among Asians declined in 2011 compared with 2010, this 0.6% decline was smaller than among any other racial/ethnic group. This finding underscores the need for increased TB awareness and prevention programs in Asian communities. A decrease in TB rates was associated with one such program, implemented in predominantly black and Hispanic neighborhoods in Texas, which raised TB awareness in the community while also treating anyone found to have latent TB infection (LTBI) (6). Moreover, because 95% of Asians with TB in 2011 were foreign-born, further support of global TB control will be important for reducing TB rates.
Addressing the increasing difference between TB rates in foreign-born and U.S.-born persons is critical for TB elimination. Most foreign-born persons with TB (78.8%) had their TB diagnosed after being in the United States for more than 2 years,†† consistent with reactivation of LTBI acquired abroad. Therefore, treating LTBI will be critical for accelerating the TB decline among foreign-born persons (5). In 2007, CDC published technical instructions for TB screening in prospective immigrants to the United States (7). As more high-TB burden countries adopt these technical instructions, screening and treating immigrants should improve. Persons screened overseas and found to have LTBI should receive preventive TB treatment upon arrival in the United States. A new, shorter regimen for LTBI requiring just 12 once-weekly drug administrations has been recommended by CDC and might result in better adherence to LTBI treatment in foreign-born and U.S.-born populations (8,9).
Approximately 81% of TB cases in 2011 had known HIV status at TB diagnosis. This increase (66.3% in 2010) is attributed to increased reporting from selected regions. The American Thoracic Society and the Infectious Disease Society of America recommend that all TB patients be counseled and tested for HIV (10).
This analysis is limited to reporting provisional TB cases and case rates for 2011. Case rates are based on estimates of population denominators from either 2010 or 2011. CDC's annual TB surveillance report will provide final TB case rates based on updated denominators later this year.
Progress toward TB elimination in the United States will require ongoing surveillance and improved TB control and prevention activities. Sustained focus on domestic TB control activities and further support of global TB control initiatives is important to address persistent disparities between non-Hispanic whites and racial/ethnic minorities and between U.S.-born and foreign-born persons.


State and local TB control officials.


  1. CDC. Reported tuberculosis in the United States, 2010. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2011. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/tb/statistics/reports/2010/default.htm. Accessed February 21, 2012.
  2. CDC. Decrease in reported tuberculosis cases—United States, 2009. MMWR 2010;59:289–94.
  3. US Census Bureau. Current estimates data. Available at http://www.census.gov/popest/data/national/totals/2011/index.htmlExternal Web Site Icon. Accessed February 2, 2012.
  4. CDC. A strategic plan for the elimination of tuberculosis in the United States. MMWR 1989;38(No. S-3).
  5. Hill AN, Becerra JE, Castro KG. Modelling tuberculosis trends in the USA. Epidemiol Infect 2012:1–11.
  6. Cegielski JP, Griffith DE, McGaha PK, et al. Eliminating tuberculosis, one neighborhood at a time. Am J Public Health 2012 (In press).
  7. CDC. CDC immigration requirements: technical instructions for tuberculosis screening and treatment. Using cultures and directly observed therapy. US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2009. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/immigrantrefugeehealth/pdf/tuberculosis-ti-2009.pdf Adobe PDF file. Accessed February 16, 2012.
  8. Sterling TR, Villarino ME, Borisov AS, et al. Three months of rifapentine and isoniazid for latent tuberculosis infection. N Engl J Med 2011;365:2155–66.
  9. CDC. Recommendations for use of an isoniazid-rifapentine regimen with direct observation to treat latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. MMWR 2011;60:1650–3.
  10. CDC. Treatment of tuberculosis. American Thoracic Society, CDC, and Infectious Diseases Society of America. MMWR 2003;52(No. RR-11).

Additional information available at http://dataferrett.census.govExternal Web Site Icon.
§ Vermont no longer reports HIV status of TB patients to CDC.
Defined by the World Health Organization as a case of TB in a person with a Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolate resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampin. Additional information available at http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2010/9789241599191_eng.pdf Adobe PDF fileExternal Web Site Icon.
** Defined by the World Health Organization as a case of TB in a person with an M. tuberculosis isolate with resistance to at least isoniazid and rifampin among first-line anti-TB drugs, resistance to any fluoroquinolone (e.g., ciprofloaxacin or ofloxacin), and resistance to at least one second-line injectable drug (e.g., amikacin, capreomycin, or kanamycin). Additional information available at http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2010/9789241599191_eng.pdf Adobe PDF fileExternal Web Site Icon.
†† The percentage of foreign-born persons with TB residing in the United States for more than 2 years was based on provisional 2011 National Tuberculosis Surveillance System data accessed on February 22, 2012. 

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