aportes a la gestión necesaria para la sustentabilidad de la SALUD PÚBLICA como figura esencial de los servicios sociales básicos para la sociedad humana, para la familia y para la persona como individuo que participa de la vida ciudadana.
miércoles, 23 de noviembre de 2016
Parasites, Potatoes, and Polution - Antimicrobial Resistance in a One Health World
23 November 2016
Last week was World Antibiotic Awareness Week, a WHO campaign to help raise awareness and understanding of one of the biggest threats to global health, food security, and development today - the overuse and misuse of life-saving drugs.
Three recent ProMED posts illustrate the contours of the problem. One discusses recent studies that were looking to find molecular markers for resistance to piperaquine, a drug used in artemisinin combination therapies. As malaria in the Greater Mekong sub-region becomes increasingly resistant to artemisinin and the partner drugs that are used to treat the P. falciparumparasite, molecular markers are urgently needed to help monitor the spread of resistance and recommend alternative treatments. Malaria in Cambodia, Thailand, and Myanmar is showing decreased susceptibility to the artemisinins which are combined with piperaquine. If the malaria parasite becomes resistant to piperaquine, the remaining option of artemisinin monotherapy will facilitate development of resistance and result in treatment failure.
The second post reported on a study of a mutant of Alternaria solani, the fungus causing early blight on potato and other solanaceous crops that has become increasing resistant to the family of chemicals commonly used against the disease. Themselves derived from fungi, strobilurins are considered environmentally safe. But like many other fungicides, they have single-site activity; the target pathogens are likely to develop resistance or tolerance over time. Since they are used against most major fungal crop diseases, pathogen resistance is of major concern worldwide. Similar to the application of combination therapies in humans, rotating or mixing chemical classes of fungicides extends the useful life of the compounds.
A third post described the situation in Medak, India, a district of about 2.5 million that has become one of the world's largest suppliers of cheap drugs. Community activists, researchers, and some drug company employees say the presence of more than 300 drug firms, combined with lax oversight and inadequate water treatment, has left lakes and rivers laced with antibiotics, "making this a giant Petri dish for antimicrobial resistance."
Antibiotics are produced naturally by various microbes that inhibit or kill other microbes in their immediate environment and these other microbes in their immediate environment would have developed resistance to these antimicrobial compounds, otherwise they would not have survived. So, it is not surprising that a team from the California Polytechnic State University reportedly found antibiotic resistance genes in human feces from ancient 11th century Incan mummies ( http://www.ndtv.com/world-news/antibiotic-resistant-genes-discovered-in-11th-century-mummy-1235286 ), almost 1000 years before Sir Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin in 1928. Before the 1950s, however, the selective pressure exerted by the presence of antibiotics occurred only within the immediate vicinity of the antibiotic-producing organisms.
For twenty-two years, ProMED has alerted the international infectious disease community to the dangers of antimicrobial resistance and other urgent topics. But, to continue to do this every day, ProMED needs your financial support. Please contribute generously.
Matt Levison, MD
ProMED-mail Associate Editor and Bacterial Disease Moderator Professor of Public Health Drexel University School of Public Health
P.S. If you use ProMED to support your work - as a teacher, researcher, doctor, or public health professional - please support ProMED.
ver historia personal en: www.cerasale.com.ar [dado de baja por la Cancillería Argentina por temas políticos, propio de la censura que rige en nuestro medio]//
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weblog.maimonides.edu/farmacia/archives/0216_Admin_FarmEcon.pdf - //
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